Mammalian chromosome evolution: comparative studies by chromosome painting on two sloth species of Bradypodidae family and two marsupial species / Evolução cromossômica em mamíferos: estudos comparativos por pintura cromossômica em duas espécies de preguiças da família Bradypodidae e em duas espécies de marsupiais da família Didelphidae




In an attempt to shed additional light on mammalian karyotype evolution, we studied, by chromosome painting, the chromosomes of species from two mammalian basal groups, sloths and marsupials. We compared human chromosomes with the chromosomes of two species of three-toed sloths, Bradypus torquatus and Bradypus variegatus, establishing homologies. Analyzing together ours and published data on chromosome painting in Xenarthra species allowed us to identify or confirm chromosome synapomorphies and ancestral characteristics. We also used chromosome painting to compare the X chromosomes of Bradypus torquatus and Bradypus variegatus as well as the X chromosomes of two American marsupials, Marmosops incanus and Metachirus nudicaudatus. Our main results and conclusions are summarized below. 1. The karyotypes of both B. torquatus and B. variegatus include (a) the human chromosomes associations HSA 4/8, 7/10, 7/16, 12/22, 14/15 and 17/19, (b) the conservation of HSA 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20 and X, (c) the disruption into two blocks of HSA 2, 7, 10, 12, 19 and 22, (d) three pairs sharing homologous segments with HSA 8, and (e) the absence of the ancestral eutherian association HSA 16/19. 2. B. variegatus (2n=54) presents a more rearranged karyotype, in relation to the human karyotype, than B. torquatus (2n=50), in particular due to fissions of ancestral chromosomes, which account for its higher diploid number. 3. Our data on B. variegatus and B. torquatus together with the previously published comparisons between human and Xenarthra chromosomes confirm, as characteristics common to the species of this super-order (a) the conservation of HSA 9, 13, 17, 18, 20 and X, (b) the disruption of HSA 19 and 22 into two blocks, and (c) the presence of the human chromosome associations HSA 4/8, 7/16, 12/22 and 14/15. 4. The human chromosome association HSA 7/10 and the disruption of HAS 8 into three blocks were confirmed as chromosome signatures for the super-order Xenarthra, supporting the monophyly of the group. 76 5. The HSA 17/19 association, which we demonstrated to be shared by B. variegatus, B. torquatus and B. tridactylus karyotypes, appears as a chromosome signature for the genus Bradypus, supporting the monophyly of the group. 6. The HSA 12/22/16 association seems to be a chromosome synapomorphic trait linking the species B. variegatus e B. tridactylus. 7. Take into account the correspondence between human and Bradypus chromosomes we observed that B. variegatus and B. tridactylus karyotypes are the most similar in the genus. 8. Based on the comparison of the human chromosomes sequences to the chromosomes sequences of the chicken and a marsupial species (outgroups to placental mammals), available in Ensembl database, we showed that a HSA 7/10 association, which is present in the super-order Xenarthra, is also present in the karyotype of the two outgroup species. As the homology between this chromosome association in Xenarthra and the outgroups are demonstrated, strong support for the classifications of this association as ancestral to Eutheria and of Xenarthra as a basal group in the eutherian phylogenetic tree will be given. 9. Our comparative analysis allow us to propose an ancestral Xenarthra karyotype with 2n=48, including (a) the human chromosome associations HSA 3/21, 4/8, 7/10, 7/16, 12/22 (2x), 14/15 and 16/19, (b) the conservation of HSA 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21 and X, (c) the disruption into two blocks of HSA 2, 7, 10, 12, 16, 19 and 22, and (d) three pairs sharing homologous segments with HSA 8. 10. Among Xenarthra species, B. torquatus and C. hoffmanni, with the lowest diploid number of the super-order, show the most conserved karyotypes in relation to our proposed ancestral Xenarthra karyotype as well as to the most recently proposed ancestral eutherian karyotype. 11. The conservation of the X chromosome euchromatin was demonstrated by interspecific chromosome painting between the sloths, B. torquatus and B. variegatus, and between the marsupials, M. incanus and M. nudicaudatus. The X chromosome heterochromatic segments were shown to be divergent in the extent to prevent in situ hybridization between species.


chromosome painting carótipo ancestral didelphidae xenarthra pintura cromossômica sloth marsupial didelphidae xenarthra preguiça bradypodidae ancestral karyotype marsupial bradypodidae

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