Efeito da temperatura de extrusão e do teor de proteina da farinha de soja desengordurada na qualidade do macarrão instantaneo de arroz




The effect of extrusion temperature and protein level of deffated soybean flour (DSF) on the quality of instant rice pasta was studied. Rice flour was mixed with various levels of DSF to obtain protein levels of 15, 20 and 25%. The raw material with the various protein levels, was processed in a single-screw extrusor, with temperatures of 80, 100 and 120°C. The pasta was submitted to various technology tests to evaluate, including: water absorption and solubility indices, initial viscosity at 30°C, and viscosity at 90°C (rising) and at 50°C (falling), protein dispersibility index (PDI), and the cooking test to evaluate color, gain in weight and volume, soluble solids loss and firmness of cooked pasta. All of the technological quality tests were statistically evaluated with response surface models. The pasta was also nutritionaly evaluated using the following tests: protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR), biological value (BV), digestibility and net protein utilization (NPU). With increasing extrusion temperature the water absorption (WAI) and solubility indices (WSI), and initial viscosity at 30°C (V30) increased, and the viscosity at 90°C (V90) and the retrogradation capacity, decreased. The increase in extrusion temperature also influenced the characteristics of the cooked pasta, such as increase of brightness and yellowness. With increasing the protein level, to 20% the WAI, the WSI and the PDI increased and V30 decreased. Also, with increasing the protein level of the cooked pasta, the brightness, the yellowness, volume, weight and the soluble solids loss, increased, but the firmness decreased. The nutricional value of the pasta was also affected by extrusion temperature and protein level of the DSF. With increasing extrusion temperature it was found that the NPR increased, and with increasing protein level the PER decreased. The maximum value of the PER was reached with the lowest level of protein assayed (12,9% of protein) indicating a better balance of aminoacids.


massas alimenticias processo de extrusão arroz - nutrição soja como alimento - nutrição

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