Educação musical escolar em Sergipe: uma análise das práticas da disciplina Canto Orfeônico na Escola Normal de Aracaju (1934-1971) / School music education in Sergipe: an analysis of the practices of the subject Choral Music in the Normal School of Aracaju (1934-1971).
Elias Souza dos Santos
IBICT - Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
This paper aims to analyze the practices of the subject Choral Music in the Normal School of Aracaju, in the period 1934 to 1971. The importance of this research is in the fact of informing, through of evidence, the existence of school music education, still in the imperial period. This teaching, gradually, has developed, assumed goals, methods, different operations, produced educational materials, had several names and, in the early years of the Revolution of 1930, was called Choral Music and from this period became a compulsory subject in the Brazilian school until 1971. For the construction of this paper were used authors of School Culture as a - Chervel (1990), Goodson (1990), Julia (2001), Forquin (1992), Nóvoa (2000), Viñao Frago (2008), Bittencourt (2003), Faria Filho (2002), Oliveira (2007), Souza (2005), Bencostta (2010), Ranzi (2007), Valdemarin (2007), among others - and is based on the theories and methods of Cultural History, especially the concepts defended by Le Goff (1984). We work with the categories: school culture, school material culture and subject school. Were used several documents (written sources, such as books, dissertations, theses, newspapers, laws, decrees, written and formal communication, diplomas, certificates, autobiographies and oral, interviews with former students, former teachers and, finally, iconographies), with the objective of having a broad knowledge of the object of study. The study of the sources showed that after the 30s, the school music education of Choral Music in Brazil and Sergipe, was very well planned, jointed with the political system of government, mobilized the schools and formed a professional school skilled (music teacher). Some aspects of life histories and trajectories of the formation of teachers of Choral Music were discussed based on Goodson (2000), Lawn (2000), Moita (2000), Nóvoa (2000), Huberman (2000), Sirinelli (2003), among others. The process of establishment of the teaching profession mobilized the teachers in Sergipe, with the objective to obtain certification of the profession. The process of instituting the role of music teacher caused a mobilization between the teachers of Sergipe, who sought to build the certification of their profession. The practices of Choral Music in Sergipe obeyed the determinations of governmental law, but by the peculiarities of local culture, took on different characteristics from other states in Brazil. However, the ritual of devotion to country - hymns and patriotic songs - and the appreciation of heroes of Sergipe and Brazil, and national symbols are characteristics that marked the practice of this subject in almost all states of Brazil. In Sergipe, the practices of this subject were introduced first, in the curriculum of the Normal School of Aracaju and later in other schools. The subject has reached a successful period (1934-1955), but in 1956 began to decline, becoming extinct in 1971. The analysis of official documents (government), documents of Normal School, and testimony (oral sources) showed inconsistencies, in other words, not always the determination of official documents reached to the classroom. In general, the period from 1934 to 1971, the history of the subject Choral Music in Sergipe exposed continuities, severances and contradictions, but, the school fulfilled its objectives, because transmitted a patriotic and nationalist representation in the social imaginary of many generations of students.
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