Doenças quiescentes em goiabas: quantificação e controle pós-colheita / Quiescent diseases in guava: quantification and post-harvest control
Ana Raquel Soares-Colletti
IBICT - Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Post-harvest diseases in guavas may represent damages from 20 to 40%. Environmental conditions and disease management, before or after harvesting, are among their major causes. Standards proposed by the Integrated Production Fruit (IPF) ensure fruit quality and sustainable production with rational use of agrochemicals. Using the white-fleshed variety Kumagai, the objectives were: (i) to determine the environmental conditions favorable to the natural colonization of Guignardia psidii in guava (ii) to quantify the incidence of major post-harvest diseases of guava at the main wholesale markets of São Paulo state, (iii) to detect and quantify the quiescent diseases from flower to fruit in the harvest point (iv) to evaluate the effect of controlled atmosphere using high concentrations of O2 to control the main post-harvest diseases of guava. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions to determine the effect of environmental conditions on the colonization of G. psidii on guavas. Surveys were carried out to quantify the postharvest diseases in guavas in CEASA and CEAGESP. The quiescent diseases of guava were quantified in two production areas by the method of early detection of quiescent infection. Inverted-bottle samplers were placed on plants to quantify spores carried by rain. Plots with and without crop residues around the plants were evaluated. Experiments in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed with different controlled atmosphere treatments for control of anthracnose and black spot of guava. The optimum temperature for G. psidii colonization was 30 °C, reaching 100% incidence with 24 hours of wetness, 10 days after incubation. The main diseases observed in the wholesale markets and in the two production areas were guava anthracnose, black spot and Fusicocum rot. The highest incidences were 56.6%, 46.1% and 41.9%, for anthracnose, black spot and Fusicocum rot, respectively, stored at 25 °C. In the field, fruits presented maximum incidences of 86.4% for anthracnose, 62.0% for black spot and 44.0% for Fusicocum rot. Anthracnose was the only post-harvest quiescent disease that was observed from the flower to the mature fruit. There was direct correlation between the maximum temperature and the incidence of anthracnose regardless of rainfall. Colletotrichum sp. strains obtained from diseased fruit were identified as C. gloeosporioides. There was no significant difference in the incidence of major diseases of guava quiescent in areas with and without crop residues around the plants. The occurrence of rain during flowering and early stages of fruit development associated with high temperatures resulted in high diseases incidences of major diseases quiescent guava \ Kumagai\ in post-harvest. The treatment 30% CO2 + 70% provided greater reductions in mycelial growth of fungi and incidence of diseased fruits, after 4 days under controlled atmosphere. Fruit stored with 60% N2O + 20% O2 + 20% N2 and 30% CO2 + 70% O2 showed lower severity of anthracnose and black spot, respectively.
anthracnose - incidence antracnose - incidência armazenagem em atmosfera controlada controlled atmosphere storage fungos fitopatogênicos goiaba guava phytopathogenic fungi pós-colheita - controle postharvest - control
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