Dinâmica populacional e mecanismos de tolerância de espécies de plantas daninhas ao herbicida Glyphosate. / Population dynamic and tolerance mechanisms of weed species to the glyphosate herbicide.




Intensive applications of the herbicide glyphosate for weed control may result in the weed population changes, through selection pressure of the glyphosate tolerant weed species. However, the glyphosate tolerance mechanisms of these species are not completely understood, and the elucidation of these mechanisms is fundamental to the recommendations of alternative herbicides to glyphosate tolerant weed management. Therefore, the objectives of this research were: (i) to evaluate the weed seed bank dynamic of the species Commelina benghalensis L., Ipomoea grandifolia (Dammer) O’Don and Richardia brasiliensis Gomez (tolerants to glyphosate), Amaranthus hybridus L. and Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (susceptibles to glyphosate), in areas that had been intensively treated with glyphosate rates for two consecutive years; (ii) to characterize the glyphosate tolerance mechanisms of C. benghalensis and I. grandifolia, and (iii) to study the efficacy of alternative herbicides in mixture with glyphosate in the control of tolerant weeds. The weed seed bank dynamic was evaluated through soil samples collected periodically, and analysed quantitative and qualitativelly by greenhouse germination test and seeds counting. Experiments were conducted to caracterize the absorption and translocation of 14 C glyphosate by C. benghalensis, I. grandifolia, A. hybridus and Glycine max resistant (R) and susceptible (S) to glyphosate, at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment (HAT); and analysing the glyphosate metabolism by the weeds at 72 HAT. Thin layer chromatography was used to determine the chemical composition of the epicuticular layers and eletronic microscopy to caracterize the foliar surface of the weeds. Greenhouse experiment with the alternative herbicides carfentrazone, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl and bentazon were conducted to test aditive, sinergistic or antagonic interactions with glyphosate on the control of the tolerant weeds. After two years of repetitive glyphosate application there was an increase in the weed seed bank of the tolerant species, and a decrease of the weed seed bank of the susceptible species to glyphosate. The rate of absorption and translocation of the 14 C glyphosate by A. hybridus and Glycine max R and S was higher than the other studied plants, likewise I. grandifolia presented an excelent rate of absorption, even tough, the translocation of this species was reduced. In C. benghalensis the glyphosate rate of foliar absorption was low, however, there was a free translocation of the herbicide. No glyphosate metabolites were observed in I. grandifolia and A. hybridus, however, in C. benghalensis it was found, besides glyphosate, the aminophosphonic acid (AMPA) metabolite. The cuticle waxes of A. hybridus and I. grandifolia presented predominantly hydrophilic characteristics, and the foliar surface did not present tricomes, being observed a great amount of stomata. The epicuticular waxes of this two weed species presented crystal form only in A. hybridus. In C. benghalensis the waxes were relatively more hidrofobics, which could be influenced on lower penetration of glyphosate; the foliar surface present tricomes and fewer stomata, and these are recovered by epicuticular wax.


banco de semente dinâmica populacional tolerância ao herbicida. seed bank herbicide tolerance. weeds population dynamic plantas daninhas

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