Padres, beatas e devotos : figuras do anticlericalismo na literatura naturalista brasileira




The present work makes an analysis of the forms of representation of religious figures in Brazilian literature. It has as its corpus three well known naturalists works The Mulatto (1881), by Aluísio Azevedo; The Man (1887), also written by Azevedo, and Morbus: pathologic novel (1898), by Faria Neves Sobrinho the main intention of these works was to examine the configuration of elements of these symbolic characters, in the physical, psychological and collective aspects. As a theoretical resource we based this work on the thoughts of the philosopher Michel Foucault, particularly in his conception of the body, together with the contributions of Erwin Goffman, Pierre Bourdieu, Max Weber, Auguste Comte, Pierre Laffite, and medical texts produced in the course of the nineteenth century. We observe that the process of stigmatization of these characters, within the positivist and rationalist logic, strengthened the opposition of theology and metaphysics as systems of thought, besides expressing the historical circumstances of nineteenth-century in Brazil, a period marked by a great resistance to the monarchy as well as to the Catholic Church. Thus, priests, devotees and devout figures are represented as anachronistic, having a sick or unproper corporeality, clear expressions of the retrogression of the social order that they represent. At last, we conclude that the naturalistic literature of the country, while appropriating the scientific character in which the literary school was qualified, gave a rational tone to its speech, particularly manifested in the setting of religious characters, thereby demonstrating its militant and reformer commitment.


positivismo literatura brasileira igreja católica anticlericalismo naturalismo catholic church positivism naturalism anticlericalism

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