Inserção de tópicos de física quântica no ensino médio através de uma unidade de ensino potencialmente significativa


IBICT - Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia




It has become a challenge to high school teachers to include contents of quantum physics in the school curriculum not only for the lack of due preparation but for the scarcity of incentive. In spite of available educational resources, teachers seldom feel ready to approach such contents in the classroom. Furthermore, the present high school curriculum as well as the National High School Exam (ENEM) do not seem to encourage the teaching of quantum physics. Nevertheless, because of the relevance of quantum physics and the dissemination of its mystical versions with their social representations, it is necessary to continue attempting at contributing to make this insertion possible in the near future. In this sense, a teaching unit on topics of quantum physics was developed with the purpose of motivating the students ¿ interest and curiosity. David Ausubel¿s theory of meaningful learning was used a its theoretical framework, so as to facilitate the occurrence of meaningful learning of the chosen contents of quantum physics based on the students¿ prior knowledge about the subject. The proposal was developed in agreement with the steps of the Potentially Meaningful Teaching Units ¿ PMTU (Moreira, 2011), according to which the first step was to make a survey of the students¿ prior knowledge followed by a general presentation of the contents. From there on, each topic received a more specific/extensive treatment aiming at progressive differentiation and integrative reconciliation. The concepts involved in this study were quantization, uncertainty, state, and superposition of states and they were presented according to the PMTU¿s steps. Implementation of this proposal occurred in four different classes of the 3rd year of high school at the State School E.M. Carlos Antonio Kluwe, Bagé, RS, Brazil, from October to December of 2011. These four classes, named A, B, C, and D, were divided into two groups. The first one, formed by classes A and B, started their activities on the October 10, 2011, while the second group, classes C and D, started them on October 31, 2011. The activities performed by the students, such as mind maps and concept maps drawn in pairs, as well as their comparison were qualitatively analysed. There are also shown free-choice works the students produced, as well as the newspaper that each of the classes put together. In addition, some of the students¿ comments on their own development regarding the concepts approached in this proposal are presented. The analysis based on obtained results suggested evidence of the occurrence of meaningful learning, which is the aim of a PMTU. Furthermore, some comments that might indicate a fair receptivity to the proposal are also set forth since they seem to encourage new implementations of this proposal.


ensino de fisica quantum physics ensino médio meaningful learning fisica quantica high school aprendizagem significativa

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