Exposição ocupacional e organoclorados em industria quimica de Cubatão - Estado de São Paulo : avaliação do efeito clastogenico pelo teste de Micronucleos




A study of occupational exposure to organochiorinated substances was initially carried out at chemical unity of Cubatão (Unidade Química de Cubatão-UQC). This industry operated from 1967 to 1993, producing carbon tetrachloride as well as perchlroethylene It is known that the residual waste of these agents is the hexachlorobenzene. Until 1976, this industry has also produced pentachlorophenol. But only in 1992 the occupational public health service examined 23 workers from UQC which five of them suffered from fat liver. Based on such important evidences, a research involving both workers and ex-workers was made at UNICAMP University. In June of 1993 the UQC area was isolated due to judicial measures. At the time, there have been a number of 150 employers working there It is known that hexachlorobenzene produces a biocumulative effect on the human organism and it also has the characteristic of being slowly excreted. Because such peculiar characteristic this substance was used as biological indicator in the measurement of the multiple environmental exposition at UQC. The serum blood levels of hexachlorobenzene were examinated at Adolfo Lutz Institute in São Paulo. (Residual Pesticides Section). There had been checked and compared the serun blood levels of both 179 workers and ex- workers as well as 10 other workers from a Restaurant Services and Construction Company in the area of UQC and 18 relatives of UQC workers and another 36 workers from different industries of the specific area. The workers and ex-workers presented higher levels of hexachlorobenzene in their blood rather than those who were not employers of the UQC as well as their relatives. From these 179 (workers and ex-workers from UQC), 85 voluntary men taken under medical and toxicological examination. In all these particular cases, it seemed to have a very close connection between serum blood levels of HCB and the lenghth of exposure. Moroever, the manufacturing realms are considered to be of great risk, it was Although all of realms are considered to be of great risk, it was possible to stablish the different of risk both on occupational and environmental exposure at UQC. In order to evaluate the clastogenical effect of occupational exposure to organochlorinated substances at UQC the Micronucleus Test was emplayed Such test consist of a process involving peripherical lymphocytes which are estimulated by phitohemoaglutinine together with blocked cytokinesis bv a cytocalasin B. This process was patherned at Laboratório de Histocompatibilidade-HLA of the UNlCAMP s HEMOCENTRO. From 1993 to 1994, a number of 41 men were exposed to organochlorinated substances and 28 who were not exposed to the same substances were taken under examination. During that period it was observed an increase in the amount of micronucleus on those men who had been exposed to harmful substances. On the other hand, those men who hadn t been exposed, presented small amounts of micronucleus. The frequency of micronucleus didn t changed a lot despite the age, period of work or serum biood levels of hexachlorobenzene,. The habit of smoking didn t interfer with the occurrence of micronucleus in both exposed and not exposed workers. This research showed that a multiple exposure to carbon tetrachloride, perchloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorophenol, produced a clastogenical effect on peripheral lymphocytes of workers at UQC area. These industrial agents are classified by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), as being carcinogenic to animals Il s also important to remember that clatogenicity is surely linked to carcinogenic effect.That is why this research should be considered as a useful contribution to the acknowlegment of the genetoxic effect of these compounds, concerning human beings. As a final step, the author assessed the main clinical complaints of all individuals taken under research were: neuropsychologic (76,4%); muscular-skeletal (44,7%); gastroentestinal (42,3%); dermatologic (38,8%), immunologic (27,0%), hepatic (17,6%) reinforcing the known data from the toxic effect from these substances


toxicologia industrial testes de mutagenicidade pesticidas

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