Contribuição a melhoria de qualidade de produtos de cacau no Brasil, por meio da caracterização de derivados de cultivares resistentes a vassoura-de-bruxa e de sementes danificadas pelo fungo / Contribution to the improvement of the quality of cocoa derived products in Brazil, through characterization of products from cultivars resistant to "witches broom" and from seeds damaged by the fungus




The aim of this study was to contribute with the Brazilian Genetic Improvement Program of cocoa by processing and characterizing the main cocoa-derived products from nine clones studied and used commercially in Bahia due to their resistance to ?witches? broom?: CEPEC 42, EET 397, TSA 654, TSA 656, TSAN 792, TSH 516, TSH 565, TSH 774, TSH 1188 and Comum cocoa, traditional in the area and susceptible to the disease. The fruits were harvested in the same period, fermented in 50 kg batches and sun-dried. The cocoa beans obtained were broken into nibs, roasted during 3 different times in a rotative electric oven at 150ºC and milled to 25 µm to obtain the liquors. A preference sensory evaluation defined the specific roasting time for each material. Cocoa butter was obtained by hydraulic pressing of the liquors. Bitter chocolates were produced by the conventional method. The physical characterization of the fruits and seeds demonstrated differences among the materials regarding total weight of the fruits and yield of seeds with pulp per fruit. Temperature and pH monitoring of the mass during fermentation and evaluation of moisture content, water activity, pH, total acidity, sugars, organic acids, proteins, total phenolic compounds and microbiological count during fermentation and at the end of drying demonstrated that the evolution of the fermentation process was different for each material. The triacylglycerol composition and the solid fat content of the cocoa butters from all the cultivars studied, except TSH 774, presented improvements compared to Comum cocoa. The quantitative descriptive analysis of the liquors carried out by two trained panels and the acceptance of the chocolates by an untrained consumer panel indicated differences for some of the parameters evaluated among the materials studied according to their genetic ascendance. The cultivars descending from Trinitario and Forastero groups presented greater preference in relation to the descendants of the Forastero group only. The physical and chemical characterization of the liquors and chocolates demonstrated differences among the materials studied; however, it also showed their industrial viability. The influence of the mixture of 0, 30, 50 and 100% of seeds damaged by ?witches? broom? with healthy seeds during the fermentation process on the characteristics of cocoa beans, liquors, cocoa butter and powder was also studied. The temperature and pH profiles of the mass during fermentation, the amounts of sugars and organic acids and the analysis of volatile compounds demonstrated that some reactions that usually occur during fermentation might have been initiated in the fruits before harvesting. The total content of polyphenols in the damaged seeds was higher than in the healthy seeds; however, losses during fermentation were also greater. Lipid and protein contents of cocoa beans and liquors decreased with the increase of the proportion of damaged seeds. ?Witches? broom? did not cause changes in the physical and chemical properties evaluated in the cocoa butters. The analysis of the volatile compounds of the seeds, beans and liquors showed that the increase of the content of damaged seeds led to the decrease or absence of the main alkylpyrazines, indicating that their use in the percentages studied may negatively affect the sensory quality of cocoa-derived products


cacau - derivados witches broom disease theobroma cacao l chocolate chocolate cacao products vassoura-de-bruxa (fitopatologia) theobroma cacao l

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