Análise filogenética de Psittaciformes (Aves) com base em caracteres morfológicos siringeais e osteológicos / Phylogenetic analysis of Psittaciformes (Aves) based on siringeal and osteological morphological characters




This study proposes hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships among representatives of the Order Psittaciformes, based on morphological characters (osteological, mainly from skull, and anatomical of syrinx), using the Principle of Parsimony for analysis of data. As previous knowledge on the compared anatomy of syrinx in the order is still restricted, with its anatomical nomenclature confused, an anatomical study was first conducted to yield a better comprehension of syrinx characters, used afterwards in phylogenetic analyses. In this anatomical study, an array of variations not known before is presented, which is compared with previous knowledge of syrinx morphology in Psittaciformes. Among detected variations, some occur in structures that are possibly involved in sound production, which will need to be taken into consideration in future functional anatomy studies. Phylogenetic analyses were based on 215 syrinxes and 208 skeletons, belonging to 91 species of Psittaciformes (distributed in 43 genera). This set of specimens was organized in 53 terminal taxa (monophyletic in relation to the sampled universe); part of them (11 in a whole) did not have their syrinx or skeleton studied and are regarded herein as incomplete terminals for processing many undetermined characters (?). In total, 101 variable characters (62 from syrinx and 49 from skeleton) were coded, with which analyses were made varying composition of incomplete terminals to find more precise phylogenetic hypothesis. For each main analysis, done with part of multi-state characters ordered, an additional analysis was done with all multi-state characters unordered to verify the influence of ordering in topologies. Obtained hypothesis were compared with the ones from literature and many congruencies were found, increasing the "support" of innumerous components recurrently retrieved. Options of ordering affect more some components than others, and additional analyses generated hypothesis with less agreement with the ones from literature. Characters herein sampled contain various homoplasies but resolution of hypothesis strongly congruent with previous phylogenies reinforces the importance of morphological characters to retrieve phylogenies among Psittaciformes, contrary to what is affirmed by some authors. Based on hypothesis obtained herein, some recommendations are pointed out to make systematics of Psittaciformes more phylogenetic informative: a. inclusion of N. nenday in the genus Aratinga; b. inclusion of A. xanthops in the genus Graydidascalus; c. Recognition of two families in the order: Nestoridae (Nestor and Strigops) and Psittacidae (with remaining Psittaciformes, including representatives of the former family Cacatuidae).


comparative-anatomy anatomia-comparada sistemática-filogenética psittaciformes psittaciformes phylogenetic systematic

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