Filogenia de Ramphastidae (Aves: Piciformes), com base em caracteres morfológicos siringeais / Phylogeny of the Ramphastidae (Aves: Piciformes) based on morphological siringeal characters




The family Ramphastidae is represented by the commonly known toucans, toucanets and aracaris, and is endemic to the Neotropics. Around 33 species, distributed in six traditional genera, are recognized. In this research study, a phylogenetic hypothesis for representatives of this family based on syringeal characters was tested. The syrinx is the organ responsible for the vocal sounds of birds and consists of modifications of the respiratory tract, that include skeletal cartilaginous elements, membranes, muscles and nerves. Data from 19 species distributed in five genera were analysed and 46 syringeal characters were coded, based on Cladistic principles. The data matrix also included representatives of the traditional family Capitonidae, sister group of Ramphastidae. The results showed three equally parsimonious trees, with a length of 92, consistency index of 0.73 and retention index of 0.88. The monophyly of the family was confirmed and supported by seven synapomorphies, but the Neotropical barbets were indicated as paraphyletic. The topology of the cladogram corroborates the inclusion of Baillonius bailloni in the genus Pteroglossus, as proposed in previous molecular studies. With this inclusion, all genera are monoplyletic, with the following relationships: Aulacorhynchus (Ramphastos (Pteroglossus + Selenidera), which is partially congruent with previous studies. The syringeal data also clarified the relationships among the species of Pteroglossus, even though the Bremer index was low in strict consensus: (P. beauharnaesii, P. bitoquatus, P. azara (P. incriptus (P. viridis (P. bailloni (P. aracari (P. pluricinctus, P. castanotis). The superspecies P. aracari proposed by Haffer is the only one confirmed as a monophyletic group.


siringe syrinx aves ramphastidae aves phylogeny filogenia anatomia anatomy ramphastidae

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