A roça e o aço : as experiencias e as resistencias operarias no Brasil Moderno (1954 a 1964) / The contryside and the steel: the working class experiences and resistance in modern Brazil (1954 to 1964)




In Brazil, during the twentieth century, from 1954 to 1964, the country went through at least three crisis: political, social, and economical. These were marked by Getúlio Vargas suicide in 1954, by Jânio Quadros resignation in 1961, and by the military coup in 1964. In the course ofthese years, in a process that started in previous contexts, it is possible to observe the formation of a working class in Brazil, due to the enlargement of the national industrial park. In the southeast of Brazil, above ali, in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, a countless number of multinacional industries from the automobile productive chain have settled in the ABC Paulista cities, attracted by a consumer market with a repressed demand, by broad custom incentives and credit given by the Brazilian govemment, as well as, by a sizeable labour offer in the cities supplied by the rural exodus . This historical context was a fertile terrain for the genesis of the national-<1evelopmental ideologicaldiscourse, according to which, in an evolutionary perspective, Brazil would overcome the underdeveloped condition through the participation of the state, of the national private capital, and of the foreign capital. Ideologically, the tripod-order, progresso and sovereignty-would give support to the social pact that was intended to be built among the social classes. In the process of urbanization and industrialization, in the FordITaylor pattem, inserted in the modemization context of the nation, the unions and the political parties disputed the course of the working class in Brazil, which was formed as a new ethnical-regional mosaic, made up of, above ali, national migrants coming from the rural areas of the country. Through the oral history" and the memory, this study tried to analyse the experiences and the strategies of resistence of fourteen ex-metalworkers, through the adaption process experienced with the migration to the cities of São Paulo and ABC Paulista, inside the labour world from 1954 to 1964. The analysis of the memories from the subjects of this history allowed me to notice that this resocialization process experienced by the rural migrant, was marked as much by the subjection to the dominant values from the society as by the insignificant refusals to the Brazilian modemity. Establishing roots in the new land, these migrant workers carne across the mechanisms of the Fordffaylor factory installed in Brazil, living with a fear difficult to define, and time which became arare product. In the core of these social relations marked by the strange/alienated work, the witnesses from this study, conceived as active subjects under the oDjective conditions given, created social practices of resistence to the forms of oppression experienced in and out of the factories. T aking into consi~eration, not only the macro-structural scenery, but, mainly, the subjective and symbolic dynamics of work, the analysis of the memories from ex-workers, who worked for different metallurgical industries from the automobile productive chain, throwed lights on the conflicting relations of the everyday life in the modem world, showing a continuous attempt from these subjects to overcome the condition of working machines


modernidade metal workers experience resistance resistencia modernity metalurgicos - brasil brazil memory experiencia memoria

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