Complex interactions envolving a gall midge Myrciamyia maricaensis Maia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), phytophagous modifiers and parasitoids

Myrciamyia maricaensis Maia, 1995 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) induces a gall in lateral and apical shoots in the plant Myrcia lundiana Kiaersk (Myrtaceae) which is used and modified by two eulophid wasps species. In both cases the gall former species suffer high rate of attack exceeding the importance of parasitoid species as mortality factors. In this study these interactions are described and their effects as mortality of gall former. The intensity of occurrence of the two eulophid species as modifiers and of microhymenopteran parasitoids, and the relative importance of these species as mortali...

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