Zero- to low-field MRI with averaging of concomitant gradient fields


National Academy of Sciences


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) encounters fundamental limits in circumstances in which the static magnetic field is not sufficiently strong to truncate unwanted, so-called concomitant components of the gradient field. This limitation affects the attainable optimal image fidelity and resolution most prominently in low-field imaging. In this article, we introduce the use of pulsed magnetic-field averaging toward relaxing these constraints. It is found that the image of an object can be retrieved by pulsed low fields in the presence of the full spatial variation of the imaging encoding gradient field even in the absence of the typical uniform high-field time-independent contribution. In addition, error-compensation schemes can be introduced through the application of symmetrized pulse sequences. Such schemes substantially mitigate artifacts related to evolution in strong magnetic-field gradients, magnetic fields that vary in direction and orientation, and imperfections of the applied field pulses.

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