Visual servoing system of a pan-tilt camera using region template tracking. / Sistema de controle servo visual de uma câmera pan-tilt com rastreamento de uma região de referência.




A pan-tilt camera can move around two rotational axes (pan and tilt), allowing its lens to be pointed to any point in space. A possible application of the camera is to keep it pointed to a certain moving target, through appropriate angular pan-tilt positioning. This work presents a visual servoing technique, which uses first the images captured by the camera to determinate the target position. Then the method calculates the proper rotations to keep the target position in image center, establishing a real-time and closed-loop system. The developed visual tracking technique is based on template region matching, and makes use of the sum of squared differences (SSD) as similarity criterion. An extension based on incremental estimation principle is added to the technique, and then the algorithm is modified again by multiresolution estimation method. Experimental results allow a performance comparison between the three configurations. The system is modeled through optical flow principle and this work presents two controllers to accomplish the system feedback: a proportional integral (PI) and a proportional with external disturbances estimation by a Kalman filter (LQG). Both are determined using a linear quadratic method and their performances are also analyzed comparatively.


visual servoing controle servo visual controle linear quadrático visual tracking linear quadratic control rastreamento visual

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