Uso de óleos sem surfactantes na aplicação de clorpirifós via insetigação na cultura de milho. / Use of oils without emulsifiers to apply chlorpirifos through insectigation on corn.
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Irrigation is perceived by the farmers as the best payback technology, beside its initial investment cost. With the end of subsidized interests for agriculture in the last years, irrigated farmers are more and more looking for shorter paybacks of their investments. The alternatives presented are successive cropping (annual crops) or more that one harvest (perennial crops) per year, and to maximize the use of the irrigation equipment which is more frequently being used to apply chemical which is known as chemigation. This scenario generates in some situations an unbalance at the environment with several consequences like pest and diseases flare and soil compaction. Chemigation has advantages and limitations. Among the advantages is to be highlighted the lower application cost when compared to other methods, and less tracking in the area which reduce soil compaction and also crop losses due to crop damage. The main limitation is that not all products can be used in chemigation. They must attend some physical - chemical properties like low water solubility and high solubility in organic solvents. The present work has the intention to generate information about the feasibility of mixing commercial formulations (emulsifiable concentrate-EC) with oils and no addition of any surfactant and the effectiveness of this mixture in comparison to standard when insectigated to control fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in corn. This way, it is expected to viabilize foliar chemigation, with the possibility of rate or applications number reduction, and also to propose a standardized methodology to install field trials. Three trials were installed during 1996 and 1997 in three different seasons, all of them with high infestation level, in commercial areas, where treatments were injected in the center of the pivots using an injection pump. The plots, in a wedge form, had a minimal lenght at the perimeter to avoid treatments contamination, which provided a minimal area of one hectare each plot. Sampling was done at four to six points for each plot. Data showed the viability of the techniques, since the half of commercial rate diluted in oil without surfactants had shown the same effectiveness that standard (full rate without oil). This sign up the possibility of a rate reduction or perhaps less applications, which will minimizes farmers costs with less environmental impact, being favorable to integrated pest management and agriculture sustainability. Generated information shows the workability of chemigation as a low cost application method, as well as the proposed methodology to install field trials had shown to be effective.