USO DA ABELHA MELÃFERA (Apis mellifera L.) NA POLINIZAÃÃO E AUMENTO DE PRODUTIVIDADE DE GRÃOS EM VARIEDADE DE SOJA (Glycine max. (L.) Merril.) ADAPTADA ÃS CONDIÃÃES CLIMÃTICAS DO NORDESTE BRASILEIRO / Use of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in the pollination and the gain in productivity of grains in variety of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril.)adapted to Brazilian Northeastern climatic conditions


IBICT - Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia




The research was carried out between July and December 2009 using tropical soya bean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) cultivars irrigated by center pivots in the irrigation district of Jaguaribe-Apodi, belonging to the agribusiness Faedo Sementes situated at the Apodi plateau, Limoeiro do Norte, CearÃ, Brazil. The study aimed to investigate the use of Apis mellifera L. for pollination and productivity increment in the soya bean cultivars Monsoy 9144RR, BRS-CarnaÃba, BRS-SambaÃba, adapted for the tropical conditions of N and NE Brazil. The following aspects were investigated: floral biology, pollination requirements, pollination efficiency of A. mellifera ; behavior and pattern of foraging; use of A. mellifera to augment productivity per Ãrea, per plant, in oil and protein content; and potential for honey production in soya bean crops and risks of pesticide contamination of the honey. Results showed that the cultivars are attractive to honey bees and they concentrate their foraging for nectar collection in the morning shift. The varieties were capable of autopollination, however there were significant (p<0.05) increments of productivity when flowers were visited by biotic agents. A single honey bee visit raised productivity to equivalent (p>0.05) levels of those flowers open for pollination. Regarding absolute production, it differed significantly (p<0.05) from the areas where honey bees were introduced in the center or along the sideline of the plantation to that where flowers did not receive flower visits. The mean number of pods per plant was 49.64 Â 2.64, 57.16 Â 2.41 and 59.60 Â 2.71; the mean number of seeds per plant was 104.68 Â 5.13, 121.46 Â 3.98 and 127.42 Â 5.95; and the percentage of pods bearing three seeds was 18.65%, 20.43% and 23.72% for the caged, open and open + honey bees treatments, respectively. Oil and protein contents of seeds did not differ (p>0.05) among treatments. All colonies produced honey and by the end of the blooming period (30 days) total production reached 81.7 kg, with a mean production of 10.1 Â 0.86 kg per hive and no pesticide residue was found. It was concluded that the soya bean cultivars adapted to N and NE Brazil can be used for honey production and the foraging behavior of A. mellifera visiting flowers only in the morning allows to recommend spraying the crop only in the late afternoon and early evening when bees are no longer in the crop to produce residue-free honey and prevent poisioning risks to the bees; also, introducing A. mellifera for pollination purpose can increase production over 25% especially due to augment in the percentage of three-seeded pods.


zootecnia mel de soja polinizaÃÃo agrÃcola polinizaÃÃo da soja polinizaÃÃo por abelhas produÃÃo de soja resÃduos de pesticidas bee pollination crop pollination pesticide residues soybean honey soybean pollination soybean production abelha - fertilizaÃÃo de plantas soja - polinizaÃÃo por inseto soja - mel

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