Trayectorias del Sur: Desplazamientos y conformaciones de las naciones diversas de Ecuador y Etiopía






This article provides a comparative analysis of the distinct policies for the state management of national diversity in Ecuador and Ethiopia. We argue that these policies have been configured to a great extent within international debates regarding the understanding of unequal differences; regarding the definitions of the indigenous and the ethnic; and finally, regarding the possibilities of national coexistence between diverse groups historically hierarchized in social and political structures of power. Given that these discussions and debates on the institutionalization of the diverse nation are imbricated in political problematics, themselves inscribed in ideological disputes, we must explore the regimes of knowledge within which these state institutionalized forms are produced. In Ecuador, the plurinational project emerges in the context of Marxist debates and intellectual controversies, particularly regarding the relationship between race and class. These initial considerations were strengthened and consolidated by the regional Latin American encounters among intellectuals, academics and members of social and political organizations. In these encounters, an international vindication of the rights of indigenous peoples and nations took shape. In contrast, in Ethiopia, the incorporation of theories and strategies from African and Asian anti-colonial struggles were the most important influences to shape the state management of national diversity, leading to the constitution of the ethnic federal state. In the Ethiopian case, these influences at one point encouraged anti-imperial and inter-ethnic unification, but later, in the context of the military authoritarian regime of the Derg and the growing importance of migration in Ethiopian politics, finally reinforce inter-ethnic divisions.

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