Tolerância do tomateiro à salinidade sob fertirrigação e calibração de medidores de íons específicos para determinação de nutrientes na solução do solo e na planta. / Tolerance of tomato to salinity under fertigation and calibration of cardy-ion meters for determination of nutrients in the soil solution and plant.




The concentration of salts in the water is one of the main aspects to be observed to define a strategy of irrigation management, which could take to damages due to the soil salinization, with consequent reduction of crops yield. Once tolerant crops to salinity present larger tenors of some nutrients in the leaves, then the fertilizing in sensitive crops could be conducted in order to increase the tenors of these nutrients in the leaves to increase the crop tolerance to salts. This work had the objective of studying the effects of three doses of N and K in the tomato tolerance to salinity, as well as to evaluate the performance of cardy-ion meters (CIM) in the determination of nutrients in the soil solution and in the sap of the plant. Tomato seedlings, hybrid Facundo, were transplanted in 10/23/2001 in vases containing 60 kg of a sandy-clay-loam soil, spaced 1.0 x 0.5 m, in a greenhouse covered with polyethylene film. The treatments were composed by the combination of three levels of N (7.5; 15.0 and 22.5 g plant-1) and three levels of K (8, 16 and 24 gK2O plant-1) applied by drip fertigation, in the 3x3 factorial scheme with five replications. Salts (sodium chloride and calcium chloride) were added to the irrigation water for obtaining an electric conductivity of 9.5 dS m-1. Soil solution and petiole sap were collected for determinations of the nutrients with the CIM, whose values were compared with the determinations by the standard methods. Significant effects of the treatments were not observed for the development and yield of the plants, as well as for the fruits quality. The concentrations of nutrients in the soil solution determined with CIM showed good correlations with the determinations by the standard methods, and the concentrations of nutrients in the petiole sap were well correlated to the tenors in the dry matter of the leaves. The electric conductivity and the ionic concentration in the soil solution could not be estimated from the measured values in the saturation extract or in the solution 1:2 only by the correction of the water content, except for K and Na, whose estimates were satisfactory for low concentrations of these elements in the soil solution.


tomate tomato condutividade elétrica salinidade do solo tolerância a salinidade fertirrigação soil salinity fertigation electric conductivity salinity tolerance

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