Temporal and spatial dynamics of citrus black spot (Guignardia citricarpa) and quantification of the damages caused to citrus culture. / Dinâmica temporal e espacial da mancha preta (Guignardia citricarpa) e quantificação dos danos causados à cultura dos citros.




The fungus Guignardia citricarpa is the causal agent of citrus black spot (CBS), which is a disease that become the fruits unsightly and unsuitable for the fresh fruit market. Besides, premature fruit drop may occur, reducing the productivity. A diagrammatic scale for the two symptoms of CBS (hard spot and false melanose) was developed to evaluate the severity and help in epidemiological studies of this disease. The susceptibility level of ‘Hamlin’, ‘Pera’ and ‘Valência’ sweet orange to CBS was evaluated in commercial orchard, under natural infection. The monomolecular model was fitted to the incidence and severity progress curves of the disease for the three sweet oranges. According to the progress curves, there was not significant difference among cultivars, showing that ‘Hamlin’, ‘Pera’ and ‘Valência’ sweet orange have similar susceptibility level to CBS. G. citricarpa in the epidemic phase produce ascospores and conidia. The ascospores, produced in leaves on soil, are disseminated by wind, while conidia, produced in plant twigs and fruits, are disseminated by water. The pattern of spatial distribution of CBS plants was evaluated by dispersion index and Ripley K function. The groups of symptomatic plants were distributed independently of disease incidence, suggesting that short distance dispersion of the inocullum could be the most important factor in distribution of the disease. The binary form of Taylor´s power law and dispersion index were used to evaluate the distribution of symptomatic fruits in the plant. According to dispersion index 84% o f the evaluated plants showed aggregation of symptomatic fruits, while by the Taylor´s power law the symptomatic fruits aggregation occurred independently of the incidence of plant disease, suggesting that the increase of disease in field conditions is related to conidia production. The effect of ascospore suppression on intensity of CBS was evaluated by removing citrus leaves from the orchard soil surface, while the conidia suppression was evaluated by early harvesting of late maturation fruits. These treatments, carried out during two years in a high inocullum incidence area, reduced the disease severity in the second year, but the satisfactory control was not observed. However, these treatments could be important in CBS control whether used in association with chemical control. Damages caused by yield reduction and losses of financial return were evaluated in two experiments. In relation to non-treated orchards, those treated orchards where the production/ha increased more than hundred boxes (40.8 kg each box) were considered profitable. The destination of the orange production (juice of fresh fruit market) are important for determine the size of samples to assess the CBS incidence. Since the G. citricarpa fungus is considered a quarentine organism that causes qualitative losses, in areas used for production of fresh fruit market whole orchard has to be evaluated. However, in areas used for production of fruits to concentrated orange juice, 285 plants sampled are enough to determinate the CBS incidence superior to 15%, in average orchards containing 2200 plants.


guignardia citricarpa citrus fungo fitopatogênico fitossanidade spatial distribution mancha preta epidemiologia epidemiology citricultura disease progress curves

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