Técnica de gerenciamento da qualidade hídrica superficial baseada na otimização multiobjetivo / A technic of surface water quality management based on the multiobjective optimization




Problems of water quality management involve many aspirations of the users engaged, those that use water for wastewater dilution or for their consumption. Therefore, it is uncommon that decision-making mathematical models used are expressed in terms of a single objective, like the maximization of economic efficiency. Using a particular water system, one should consider the equitable distribution, the rational use, the maximization of economic efficiency, the minimization of environmental impacts, among others parameters. In this context, three models of multiobjective optimization were proposed and considered to maximize the wastewater discharge by point sources, the qualitative improvement of the water, minimizing the magnitude of the violations of water quality standards. The main contribution of this work was the incorporation of a restriction on the multiobjective optimization model. The proposed restriction is an index that intends to distribute equitably the efficiency of treatment needed between pollution sources. Without considering equity measure, the attempt to maximize waste discharge would result in an allocation of large quantities of waste to the upstream users, while the downstream dischargers would be required to treat their effluents at levels of maximum possible efficiency. The method used to solve the problem was the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA) and the case study was implemented in the Atibaia river basin, SP. The solutions presented by the optimization show and prove the existing conflicts and competition among the criteria considered. The genetic algorithm has been shown to be an effective technique for solving problems of multiobjective optimization in applications of water quality management, identifying the decision variables in Pareto front.


gerenciamento da qualidade da água genetic algorithms water quality management algoritmos genéticos multiobjective optimization equity measure medida de eqüidade otimização multiobjetivo

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