Systematic review and meta-analysis: Which pitfalls to avoid during this process


Int. braz j urol.




ABSTRACT Introduction: The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of lower tract urinary symptoms (LUTS) and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents and their association in a community setting using validated scoring instruments. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2015 to December 2019, during which the parents or guardians of 431 children and adolescents from 5 to 13 years of age, attending a general pediatric outpatient clinic were interviewed. Results: The prevalence of ADHD symptoms and LUTS were 19.9% and 17.9%, respectively. Of the 82 children and adolescents with ADHD, 28% (23) had LUTS (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.75, p=0.008). Mean total DVSS score in children in the group of children presenting ADHD symptom was significantly higher than those without ADHD symptom (10.2±4.85 vs. 4.9±2.95, p=0.002). Urgency prevailed among LUTS as the most frequent symptom reported by patients with ADHD symptoms (p=0.004). Analyzing all subscales of the DVSS, the items “When your child wants to pee, can't he wait? “Your child holds the pee by crossing his legs, crouching or dancing?” were higher in those with ADHD symptoms (p=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). Functional constipation was present in 36.4% of children with LUTS and 20.7% without LUTS (OR 4.3 95% CI 1-5.3 p=0.001). Conclusion: Children and adolescents with ADHD symptoms are 2.3 times more likely to have LUTS. The combined type of ADHD was the most prevalent among them.

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