Study of nickel catalysts supported on modified ZrO2 applied in reforming reactions / Estudo de catalisadores de níquel suportados em ZrO2 modificados aplicados em reações de reforma
Jorge David Alguiar Bellido
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Zirconium dioxide is a material with physics and chemical characteristics that can be applied in many fields, as academic as industrial. In the catalysis, the interest in systems based on zirconia (ZrO2) are growing- up quickly, as a catalyst as a support, considering that ZrO2 properties can be changed by the addition of different cations. The objective of this work was the study of nickel catalyst supported on ZrO2, modified with the cations: Mg2+, Ca2+, La3+ and Y3+ in different proportions and their performance on catalytic tests of dry reforming of methane, steam reforming of methane, partial oxidation of methane and steam reforming of ethanol. The supports were prepared by the polymerization method for the dilution of the cations in the zirconia lattice. The nickel addition was made wet impregnation in a proportion of 5wt% for all the catalysts. Supports and catalysts were characterized by specific surface area (B.E.T method), Xray diffraction, temperature-programmed reduction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, electronic paramagnetic resonance and electrical conductibility. In the characterizations was observed the formation of solid solutions between the ZrO2 and the cations added in all proportions used. Also, it was observed the stabilization of tetragonal phase of ZrO2, accompanied by an increase in the surface area when compared to the pure ZrO2, which is a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic phases with low surface area. The EPR measurements showed the presence of oxygen radicals whose proportion increased in function of the additive content in ZrO2, this effect was attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies. In the TPR measurements, a variation on reduction patterns was observed in function of the oxygen vacancy presence, where is possible to identify a promoter effect on NiO reduction to lower temperature with the additive load increase in ZrO2. This effect can be attributed to interactions between the oxygen vacancies of support and nickel species close to them. UV-Vis measurements confirmed these interactions presence that are dependent both of the cation added as well the load used. The electrical conductivity measurements confirm the presence of oxygen vacancies in the supports. In the dry reforming of methane was observed a relation between the catalytic behavior and the electrical conductivity of the supports. This observation suggests the oxygen vacancies participation on oxygenates molecules activation. In the steam reforming of methane and the partial oxidation of methane this relation was not found, suggesting different ways for oxygenates molecules activation by the oxygen vacancies, besides other factors. In the steam reforming of ethanol, it was observed relation between the catalytic behavior of this reaction and the dry reforming of methane, indicating similarity on the influence of the catalyst modifications on the catalytic behavior of these reactions.
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