Spontaneous Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Dissection Requiring Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
Tagliari, Ana Paula, Kochi, Adriano Nunes, Rohde, Luis Eduardo Paim, Wender, Orlando Carlos Belmonte
Braz. J. Cardiovasc. Surg.
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Abstract Introduction: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a sudden separation between the layers of a coronary artery wall, non-iatrogenic or trauma related, that has been recognized as an important cause of myocardial infarction. Objective: To report an emblematic case, in terms of angiographic images, clinical presentation and predisposing factors, whose clinical management failure led to surgical intervention. Methods: A previously healthy 48-year-old male farmer was admitted to the emergency room complaining of anterior chest pain described as "tearing", which started after physical exertion. Anterior wall ST-segment depression was observed in the electrocardiogram and troponin levels were increased. The patient then underwent coronary catheterization. Angiography showed a tortuous left anterior descending coronary artery with a dissection line involving proximal and middle segments, resulting in mild to moderate luminal stenosis. At first, a conservative approach was chosen. Control cardiac catheterization, 3 months later, showed dissection progression to the distal segment. Results: The patient was referred to surgical treatment. Internal thoracic artery and a great saphenous vein graft were used to revascularize the target vessels. He had an uneventful postoperative course. Conclusion: In this report, we describe a typical clinical manifestation of an uncommon cause of acute myocardial infarction. The dissection was started by an extreme physical effort, which is a known triggering factor. Management of these cases is always challenging because there are no evidence-based therapies or guideline-based recomendations.
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