Socioeconomic inequality in dietary intake begins before 24 months in Brazilian children
Rinaldi, Ana Elisa Madalena
Rev. Saúde Pública
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess dietary patterns by socioeconomic gradient of Brazilian infants and young children in 2006 and 2013. METHODS: Data from the National Demographic Survey (2006) and the National Health Survey (2013) were used. Food intake were described by wealth index, age range and survey year. Dietary patterns were defined by principal component analysis. Association of wealth index and dietary patterns were modelled using linear regression. RESULTS: Breast milk intake was higher for poor infants and young children, while fresh food intake (fruits, vegetables, meats, beans) was higher for the richer ones in 2006 and 2013. Biscuits and sweetened beverages were more consumed by rich infants and young children in 2006 and by poor and rich children in 2013. Three dietary patterns (DP1, DP2, and DP3) were identified in 2006 and four in 2013 (DP1, DP2, DP3, and DP4). DP1 was composed mainly of fresh foods, and it was positively associated with the wealth index for infants and young children in both years. DP2 was composed of biscuits, cookies and sweetened beverages, and it was positively associated with the wealth index for young children in 2006 and for poor and rich infants and young children in 2013. DP3 was composed of milk, water and porridge in both years, and it was not associated with the wealth index. DP4 was composed of breast milk and porridge, and it was negatively associated with the wealth index. CONCLUSIONS: DP1 is a characteristic pattern for richer infants and young children since 2006, while DP2 is a characteristic pattern for all infants and young children in 2013, regardless of wealth index. Dietary inequality between the poor and the rich seems to begin in childhood.
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