Sistema ambiental aplicado á liberação de efluente radioativo líquido / ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM APPLIED TO RADIOACTIVE LIQUID EFFLUENT RELEASE
Marcelo Bessa Nisti
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
The current environmental administration considers the productive activity as an environmental system, defined as a group of processes, interactions, parameters and factors involved in the production. This mastering dissertation evaluated the release of the liquid radioactive effluents at Instituto de Pesquisas Energética e Nucleares (ipen), under a systemic environmental study. The study evaluated the source term at ipen in the period from 2004 to 2008, making use of gamma-ray and alpha spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis, liquid phase scintillation and atomic absorption spectrometry. The employed methodologies were verified using samples from the Intercomparison National Program PNI/IRD and Reference Materials. The facilities that contributed the most in these releases were the Radiopharmaceutical Center (CR) and the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) with an average of 11,4% and 87,4%, respectively, relative to the present radioactive activity. The sewer system releases were within the radioactive protection regulations, showing the effectiveness of ipen´s Radioactive Effluents Monitoring Program. The concentration of the stable elements Ag, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was determined in the liquid effluent in all the samples from the storage tanks TR1 and CR in the period from 2004 to 2008 and in some of the samples of other ipen´s facilities in the period from 2004 to 2007. Among the analyzed effluents, two samples were higher than the stable elements discharge standards established in the state of São Paulo, one sample was higher than the required value of the element cadmium and the other higher than required value of the element zinc. The storage tank TR1 discharge flow was estimated in 10,9 ± 0,9 m3 h-1. The dilution factor at discharge point E1 was estimated using a radiotracers the isotopes 3H, 137Cs, 60Co, 54Mn e 65Zn, which are commonly released into ipen´s sewer system. The executed radiotracer study was carried out without monetary and environmental costs. The results showed that the dilution factors values varied according to the employed radioisotope, in increasing order from 3H, 137Cs, 54Mn, 60Co to 65Zn, following to each chemical element characteristics, significant variance among hydrogen, alkaline metal and transition metals was also showed. The dilution factor averages obtained in the first and second day of the releases were respectively 4,3 and 7,4 for 3H, 12,0 and 16,1 for 54Mn, 12,6 and 14,2 for 60Co, 12,0 and 27,9 for 65Zn, 6,2 and 13,9 for 137Cs. This is the first study about intra-institutional dilution factor estimation using anthropic radiotracers, without any addition costs. The obtained results contribute with the subsidies to the improvement of the environmental conduct and to establish optimized procedures, under current legislation. The dilution factors were estimated in an operations and laboratorial study, in only one controlled discharge of the storage tank TR1. This radioactive tracers study will have to be repeated, in order to create an institutional database. The environmental systemic study must be established by each case, depending on the characteristics of the area, the institution and the released effluents.
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