Risk factors related to hypertension among patients in a cohort living with HIV/AIDS


Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases




INTRODUCTION: Studies disagree as to whether there is a greater prevalence of hypertension among HIV/AIDS patients and the role of antiretroviral therapy. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the prevalence of hypertension and risk factors in a cohort of HIV-infected patients, with emphasis on antiretroviral therapy. METHOD: Case-control study conducted at baseline of a cohort, between June/2007 and December/2008 in Pernambuco/Brazil. Blood pressure was classified as normal, prehypertension, and hypertension. RESULTS: Of 958 patients, 245 (25.6%) had hypertension (cases), 325 (33.9%) had prehypertension, and 388 (40.5%) were normotensive (controls). Comparison between hypertensive and normotensive patients showed that traditional factors, such as age > 40 (OR = 3.06, CI = 1.91-4.97), male gender (OR = 1.85, CI = 1.15-3.01), BMI > 25 (OR = 5.51, CI = 3.36-9.17), and triglycerides > 150 mg/dL (OR = 1.69, CI = 1.05-2.71), were independently associated with hypertension. Duration of antiretroviral therapy and CD4 > 200 cells/mm³ were associated with hypertension in univariate analysis, but did not remain in final model. Type of antiretroviral schema and lipodystrophy showed no association with hypertension. CONCLUSION: Hypertension in HIV/AIDS patients is partially linked to invariable factors, such as age and sex. Efforts should be directed toward controlling reversible factors, particularly excessive weight gain and unsuitable diet.

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