Riscos ocupacionais e acidentes com material biológico em profissionais de enfermagem da saúde coletiva / Occupational risks and accidents with biological material among nursing workers in the collective health field


IBICT - Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia




The objective of this descriptive and quantitative study was to analyze occupational risks and accidents among nursing workers in the collective health field with a focus on biological material - BM. The study\ s setting included the cities participating in a Committee of Regional Management in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and was developed in two phases. In the first phase, data were collected from the accident report forms from August 2006 to August 2011. Interviews were held with 158 workers in the second phase. Data were then analyzed in the SPSS, version 16.0. The accident report forms revealed that 30 workers reported 30 accidents; 90% involved exposure to BM, 6.7% involved falls, and 3.3% domestic animal bite. In the interview, 56 workers reported the occurrence of one or more types of occupational accidents from 2006 to 2011: 45 reported accidents with BM, eight with cuts and perforations with clean material, five reported falls, four reported commuting accidents and two reported other types of accidents. A total of 74 accidents with BM were reported by 45 workers; 50 of which with cutting-piercing material, 19 in intact skin, four in mucosal and one in injured skin. Most was exposed to blood (91.9%) during venipuncture removal (16.2%). In 67.6% of the cases the professionals were not wearing individual protection equipment, though 77% stated that there was available. In 50% of the accidents with BM, the professional did not seek or did not receive any type of care; in 9.5% of the cases the worker attended a medical consultation, took exams or performed a rapid testing on the source patient; 70.3% reported not being referred to follow-up or had no interest in follow-up. In 73% of the exposures, the workers took appropriate actions in relation to the affected site; 63.5% of the accidents were not officially reported. Such failure in reporting accidents is verified in the difference between the number of accidents reported in the forms and those reported in the interviews. All the professionals reported the occupational risks to health and the most frequently mentioned was the biological risk (exposure to blood, microorganisms, and body fluids). Most (98.7%) professionals were fully immunized against Hepatitis B; 19.6% had knowledge concerning occupational accidents prevention; 20.9% were aware of a protocol for BM post-exposure prophylaxis; 58.2% knew the procedures to be follow concerning the affected site; and 62.6% were aware of accident report forms. Most (77.9%) reported no training concerning BM accidents and precaution measures was provided during their nursing experience, which may have led to the workers\ low adherence to some measures. This study revealed the various reasons that led workers to suffer occupational accidents, among which material, individual/behavioral and institutional factors. Such reasons should be investigated in the different contexts experienced by nursing workers so to minimize occupational risks and accidents. These data and literature review supported propositions of prevention actions and control of accidents with BM as well as the development of a post-exposure protocol.


exposure to biological agents accidents acidentes de trabalho enfermagem exposição a agentes biológicos nursing occupational

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