Risco biológico e medidas de prevenção na prática da atenção básica / Biological risk and preventive measures in primary health care practice
Keyti Cristine Alves Damas Rezende
IBICT - Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Infections in health care services, among which include primary care, have represented a serious problem and with several repercussions in the context of human health. The activities conducted in primary care are potential source of biological risk, both for users of these services and for their workers. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the biological risk for professionals and users during the execution of procedures in the Health Units in the catchment area of a Health District of Goiânia - GO. This is a descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional study with quantitative approach. Data collection occurred among January and May of 2010, through direct not participant observation, being the data recorded in specific check list for each procedure. A questionnaire, with closed and open questions, was used to characterize the professional involved in the procedure followed and their qualification for the job. The data were processed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 16.0 for Windows and, then grouped in tables and figures. There were around 280 hours of observation, a total of 149 procedures, being 77 vaccinations, 28 bandages, 24 vaginal smears, 11 neonatal screening and 9 Mommy test. The procedures were performed by 28 professionals, 5 (17.8%) were nurses and 23 (82.1%) were nursing technicians, most females (95.3%).The results showed the possibility of exposure to biological material, because, in these procedures there is handling is sharp, the possibility of contact with blood, secretions, and immunobiological, aerosol formation, the proximity of the face and punched a member of the professional, agitation and/or reaction unexpected user. We found that there is poor adhesion to Hand Hygiene - HH and on the use of Personal Protective Equipment - PPE. The low rates of HH, in addition to non-adhesion to proper technique form a risk behavior that endangers health professionals and users. Failures related to the availability of PPE in the services studies here can influence the low adhesion to them and enable greater exposure to biological risk. Educational and management actions, aimed at consolidating a practical aware of the potential biological relevance and the availability of resources, are necessary for a greater adherence to this Standard Precautions. The nurse, as leader of this team, should be encouraged to develop actions based for security and commitment to minimize the risk inherent in biological practice, still working with educational activities. We point out the need for infection control committees to act in several health districts, directing and supervising the use and provision of these resources. More studies should be done in this area so that a deeper understanding of the topic, seeking alternative solutions to the specific and primary care.
enfermagem controle de infecção risco ocupacional precauções universais atenção básica enfermagem enfermagem; infecção hospitalar; risco ocupacional; precauções universais nursing infection control occupational risks universal precautions primary health care
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