Resistance to temephos and deltamethrin in Aedes aegypti from Brazil between 1985 and 2017


Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz




BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti populations in Brazil have been subjected to insecticide selection pressures with variable levels and sources since 1967. Therefore, the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH) coordinated the activities of an Ae. aegypti insecticide resistance monitoring network (MoReNAa) from 1999 to 2012. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to consolidate all information available from between 1985 and 2017 regarding the resistance status and mechanisms of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations against the main insecticide compounds used at the national level, including the larvicide temephos (an organophosphate) and the adulticide deltamethrin (a pyrethroid). METHODS Data were gathered from two sources: a bibliographic review of studies published from 1985 to 2017, and unpublished data produced by our team within the MoReNAa between 1998 and 2012. A total of 146 municipalities were included, many of which were evaluated several times, totalling 457 evaluations for temephos and 274 for deltamethrin. Insecticide resistance data from the five Brazilian regions were examined separately using annual records of both the MoH supply of insecticides to each state and the dengue incidence in each evaluated municipality. FINDINGS Ae. aegypti resistance to temephos and deltamethrin, the main larvicide and adulticide, respectively, employed against mosquitoes in Brazil for a long time, was found to be widespread in the country, although with some regional variations. Comparisons between metabolic and target-site resistance mechanisms showed that one or another of these was the main component of pesticide resistance in each studied population. MAIN CONCLUSIONS (i) A robust dataset on the assessments of the insecticide resistance of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations performed since 1985 was made available through our study. (ii) Our findings call into question the efficacy of chemical control as the sole methodology of vector control. (iii) It is necessary to ensure that sustainable insecticide resistance monitoring is maintained as a key component of integrated vector management. (iv) Consideration of additional parameters, beyond the supply of insecticides distributed by the MoH or the diverse local dynamics of dengue incidence, is necessary to find consistent correlations with heterogeneous vector resistance profiles.

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