Proposal of treatment algorithm for immune thromocytopenia in adult patients of a hematology service at a referral center in Northeastern Brazil
Ribeiro, Rosângela de Albuquerque
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther.
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
ABSTRACT Introduction: The management of adult (≥18 years) immune thrombocytopenia patients relies on platelet count, the risk of bleeding and presence of bleeding. Objective: Confirming the diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia and the start of therapy, our hematology service, a referral center, favors the establishment of this algorithm to treat those patients. Results: Presentation, recently diagnosed or recurrence - group 1: life-threatening bleeding: high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins with methylprednisolone or dexamethasone. Hospitalization and platelet transfusion are considered. Group 2: Platelets <30 × 109/L with bleeding or risk factor for bleeding, or platelets <20 × 109/L: prednisone or dexamethasone. No response, platelets <20 × 109/L: replace corticoid or increase doses. If platelets continue <20 × 109/L: immunization and splenectomy. Investigation of Helicobacter pylori, if positive: treatment for H. pylori. Chronic immune thrombocytopenia with platelets <20 × 109/L we propose two new groups (A and B): Group A: <65 years, no or low surgical risk, patient declines maintenance therapy or patient intends to get pregnant: immunization and splenectomy. Group B: failure of splenectomy (refractory) or no splenectomy indication or history of exposure to malaria or babesiosis and no response to corticoids or corticoid dependence: choose thrombopoietin receptor agonists: eltrombopag or romiplostim. Patient at high risk for arterial or venous thrombosis: recommend rituximab. After rituximab or thrombopoietin receptor agonists, if platelets continue <20 × 109/L: indicate immunosuppressants (azathioprine or cyclophosphamide), dapsone or mycophenolate mofetil or vinca alkaloids. The goals of treatment for chronic or refractory immune thrombocytopenia are to keep platelets >20 × 109/L and stop bleeding.
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