Projetos de mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo (MDL) em aterros sanitários: contribuições das tecnologias ambientais para o desenvolvimento sustentável.
Kristian Brito Pasini
IBICT - Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
The Kyoto Protocol is regarded as one of the most ambitious global political events on the environment. Through this global environmental governance landmark major industrial nations pledged to cut their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. To facilitate compliance with emission targets for GHG, three flexibility mechanisms were created. Among these, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the only one that allows the participation of developing countries like Brazil. The CDM aims to reduce emissions in developing countries so as to generate carbon credits that can be sold to developed countries that require these to meet their GHG reduction targets. In Brazil, landfills often resort to CDM to develop financially viable projects for the collection and controlled burning of biogas, with or without power generation. This work analyzes the contribution of Landfill Gas CDM projects for the promotion of environmentally sound technologies and sustainable development. The research consisted of two stages: first, 17 CDM landfill projects approved by the year 2007 were analyzed through content analysis of their Project Design Documents and then two analytical/explanatory cases were studied through semi-structured interviews and data triangulation. The results indicate that profitability is the primary motivator of CDM projects in landfills and that investment risks and uncertainties relating to the Brazilian energy matrix are the main barrier to implement projects that generate electricity from biogas. It is also noted that most of the projects do not involve significant transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries from more developed nations. It can be concluded that the CDM projects implemented in Brazilian landfills are far from achieving its primary purpose of minimizing the effects of climate change while stimulating a cleaner model of development, as mentioned in Kyoto Protocols Articles.
aterros sanitários mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo protocolo de kyoto créditos de carbono tecnologias ambientais transferência de tecnologia brasil sanitary landfills clean development mechanism kyoto protocol carbon credits environmental technologies technology transfer brazil administracao publica
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