Projeto e construção de bancada para ensaios de filtração de gases a alta pressão




With the industrial expansion and the increase of vehicles assembled daily, there was an increase in the use of natural gas as combustible. Beyond the cheaper the level of emission of pollutants by burning natural gas as fuel it is lower than all the fuels used until today. The increasing consumption of natural gas and the severity of the legislation in respect to the environment caused a greater search for knowledge of the behavior of various filter media that could be used in high pressure filtration. In face of this situation, it was projected and developed an equipment capable to support high pressures during the filtration of gases. During the tests, some changes in this project were needed, with the objective of obtaining the most suitable configuration for the accomplishment of the experiments. To verify the operation of this equipment there was a preliminary investigation, not only of cellulose filter media, that sufficiently are used in this type of filtration but also, the polyester treated and metallic, which could be reused to avoid the accumulation of residues with its discard. The tests were conducted with pressures ranging from 98 to 900 KPa and fair flow from 0.00028 to 0.0019 m3 / s , to determine the coefficient of permeability. To verify the formation of filter cake and efficiency of the filter media, it was made tests from 500 KPa and 0.0016 m3 / s using phosphate rock as particulate material. At the end of this study, it was verified that the permeability coefficients darciana and non-darciana ( 1 k and 2 k ) increased with increasing pressure of the system. The curves of pressure versus velocity showed linear behavior, showing that the viscous forces was predominant in relation to the inertial forces. The cellulose filter media, when subjected to pressure of 5 bar, showed the greatest loss, lower efficiency and lower permeability. The filter media made of polyester and metal showed loss of load and efficiency quite similar, but the fabric has a permeability a slightly smaller than the metallic one. Three filter media showed similar fractional efficiency for collecting particles larger than 15 μm (~ 90%), but for particles smaller than 0.5 μm, the cellulose filter media, was shown to be less efficient than the other studies in this project, because of its high back pressure and lower permeability. This shows that despite the cellulosic filter has a relatively cheaper cost for the filtration of gas, this gives a performance below the metalic filter media polyester treated and the last two the most suitable for filtration at high pressure. It was chosen the filter media of cellulose paper, which was showed the lowest performance for the assays with pressure variaty. It was submitted to pressures of 1, 3 and 7 bar. When analyzing the fractional efficiency, we find out that the higher the pressure, the smaller the efficiency of the filter media.


engenharia quimica filtros a pressão filtração de gases

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