Postpartum maternal body composition and human milk fatty acids profile relationship / Evolução da composição corporal materna pós-parto e sua relação com o perfil de ácidos graxos do leite humano
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
There is an agreement between the researchers that the mobilization of the maternal fat reserve presents relation with the contents of the fat free acids of the human milk, although a few studies have been investigated thoroughly about this association The objectives of this study was to verify the weigh and the body composition of the lactating mothers in the first three months postpartum, as well as the factors that act on the weight during these period, to determinate the average content of fat free acids in function of the body composition of the lactating mothers. The study made was the longitudinal prospective, with a selection of 33 women. There was structured interviews, weight evaluation, stature, arm, waist and hips circumferences and the maternal body composition for electric bioimpedance. Farther on, samples of human milk were collected and the content of fat free acids was determinate. There ware significant statistically differences between the amount of (BMI) and its ascendance (FFBMI and FBMI), as well as for the body weight, fat loss mass, fat mass, body water and fat percentage, along with the source. The waist and the hip circumferences show significative differences from the 60th day postpartum. The decrease of the weight measure and BMI was affected by the reduction of the body water and there was the motion of body fat mass. The type of breastfeeding acted on the lactating mothers weight evolution, having most weight loss in women whose breastfeeding was exclusive. Related to the lipid profile of the human milk, the content of the saturated fat acids (41%), monounsaturated (30,5%) was lower, ω-3 was similar (1,5%) and ω-6 was higher (25%) than the ones described in the literature. The content of the palmitic acid (C16:0) in the human milk show correlation with the hip (r=0,37) and the waist (r=0,37) circumferences and BMI (r=0,38). Women who show values higher than the average from the sample, was found purport higher than C16:0. The eicosatrienoic acid content (C20:3n3) show correlation with the BMI (r=0,44) and FBMI (r=0,44). Women which show elevated BMI, fat percentage, ∆BMI and ∆hip circumference were found quantities higher than C20:3n3. The percentage of the polyunsaturated products of the essential fat free acids in the human milk shows the motion of these fat free acids damaging the others. The women who show higher loss of weight body mass in the first 90 days postpartum also show higher amount of polyunsaturated acids in the human milk. The breastfeeding type during three first 90 days postpartum presented a factor which acted on the maternal behavior weight evolution, indicating that the period and the intensity of breastfeeding are important parameters in the maternal nutritional state after the childs birth and that the content determination of fat free acids in the human milk is essential to the elucidate the fat functions of the infant, since the different types of fat free acids present distinct behavior and functions. The relation between the maternal body composition and the contents of specific fat acids, should have been studied intensively further and investigations should also study, since only a few studies investigated this matter. It is been suggested future investigation research a greater number of nursing mothers and go along with the changes of the body composition during the six first months with the aim of finding stronger relation between the ones done before.
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