Período pós-parto: práticas de cuidado adotadas pela puérpera / Postpartum period: care practices adopted by the woman in the puerperium
Nayara Girardi Baraldi
IBICT - Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Puerperium is considered a phase with biological, social and cultural changes often not correctly understood by women, the main reason why requires special attention from professionals, and caregivers networks involved on the care. Literature and professional practice shows that beliefs about postpartum care has a strong relevance in a womans routine and often overlaps guidance received at the health institutions. From this perspective, this study had as objective to explore practices adopted in postpartum by women served in the Basic Health Unit in a city of Rio Claro state of São Paulo (Brazil). This is a qualitative study and followed Purnell Cultural Competence Model as a theoretical approach and whose data was treated by the Collective Subject Speech (CSS). The data was approved by Ethics in Research Committee and complied with Resolution 196/96. The data was collected in 2011 through interviews with 20 women in the puerperium between 30 and 45 days of postpartum. We identified social and demographic conditions from each interviewed as well as from her family, besides their experiences at the puerperal period. The data showed that women in the puerperium were young, had low smoking rates, alcoholism or drugs addictions, and on average had an income that was equivalent to 3 minimum salaries. The reports had originated 21 CSS, and the contents showed the stronger beliefs influence on postpartum care practices; beliefs that were passed by intergenerational family and cultural caregivers. Health professionals demonstrated their presence through guidelines with practices with a biological focus and offered in a vertical manner, and sometimes divergent and fragmented, which demonstrated difficulty in following the cultural influences involved in the process. For this reason, puerperal care practices had suffered greatly due to the influence of beliefs and cultural woman patterns, as well as information obtained from the Internet. The Internet filled gaps and provided greater security methods to follow at pregnancy stage, childbirth as well as at puerperium. Upon reviewing the results, it is suggested that the following take place to incorporate the cultures of women to the experiences of the health care professionals to provide a culturally competent care; programming groups on health education focused on the puerperium experience for women and her caregivers; the implementation of Family Health Program, and the inclusion of Midwifery in the health programs to allow this new professional to take care the woman and her newborn.