Origin, tempo, and mode of the spread of DENV-4 Genotype IIB across the state of São Paulo, Brazil during the 2012-2013 outbreak


Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz




BACKGROUND Dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) was first reported in Brazil in 1982 and since then no more cases were detected again in Brazil until 2010, when the virus was reintroduced. Over the following years, the virus spread to several Brazilian states and resulted in about 1,400,000 dengue cases, in 2013. The largest number of cases were documented in the Southeast macro-region. OBJECTIVES To determine the phylogeography of DENV-4 Genotype IIB strains isolated during the epidemics in 2012-2013 in São Paulo, Brazil, we aimed to contextualise the contribution of viruses sampled in different localities across the overall movement of DENV-4 in Brazil. METHODS Based on the envelope gene sequences retrieved from GenBank, we employed a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to assess the spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-4 Genotype IIB in São Paulo, Brazil. FINDINGS The dispersal dynamics of DENV-4 Genotype IIB in Brazil indicated Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso states as the most likely routes toward São Paulo before the 2012-2013 outbreak. Likewise, Guarujá and São José do Rio Preto facilitated viral spread and transmission to other localities in the South and Southeast macro-regions in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS The spread pattern of DENV-4 Genotype IIB strains across the country supports two independent introductions of the virus in São Paulo in a short period of time. Furthermore, São Paulo appears to have played a pivotal role in the dissemination of DENV-4 to other locations in Brazil.

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