O papel da integração regional na prevenção, gereniamento e resolução de conflitos na África : o caso da União Africana (UA) / The role of regional integration in conflict prevention, management, and resolution in Africa : the case of African Union (AU)
Joram Mukama Biswaro
IBICT - Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Socio-economic development in Africa is inseparable from warfare. In the mid 1990s alone, a third of sub-Saharan African countries had an active civil war, many of which, lasted a decade or more. Mass violence has afflicted nearly every African nation since independence. These conflicts are epic events in each nations history, destroying life, skills, wealth, and infrastructure and potentially damaging a societys social bonds and institutions. For example ,according to the Tunisian Government Support Plan to the G8 in May 2011, the crisis in that country has left it at a cross-road economically. The uncertainties arising from the transition period have had a negative impact on the Tunisian economy, with a cost estimated at five percent of the countrys GDP. Growth forecast are low, the state budget and the balance of trade are negatively affected and Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) have slowed down. As a result, investment credits will have to be cancelled in order to meet this need (Tunisia Govt. Mid-Year Report, 2011). The causes of conflicts are varied. The then the Organization for African Unity (OAU) had, as a result, created a mechanism to address the problem. Indeed, the fact that we had the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution (MCPMR) within the OAU, is by itself, the center of the problem to be studied. This is precisely so because the prevention, management and resolution process always raises a number of pertinent issues that call for further serious investigations. Such issues include: why has there been a continuous state of conflicts in the continent since the end of the colonial era? What are the root causes? The possibilities that would exist for success or failure and why; the expectations of the populace, region as well as international community; what role can the regional economic communities(RECs) play in addressing these conflict situations and the experience that can be gained from similar occurrences in other parts of the world in the process and so on. It has to be noted, however, that the debates and discussions taking place during peace negotiations are far from being enough and adequate. To get answers to all these questions, there is a need to carry out a comprehensive study and to broaden the scope of data and information collection. It is therefore our intention (researcher) to contribute to this study with the aim of demonstrating by inference and logic, inter alia, that the mechanism suffers from some constraints embedded in the Charter, lack of resources and so forth. Further, it is a fact that the mechanism has somehow failed to live up to its expectations owing to these and other varied reasons, thus leading to its transformation into the Peace and Security Council (PSC). Finally, the study attempts to demonstrate empirically the socio-economic effects of such conflicts to Africa and to the international community, and how the regional and subregional economic integration groupings can play a significant role in preventing, managing and resolving such phenomena.
ACESSO AO ARTIGOhttp://www.bdtd.ucb.br/tede/tde_busca/arquivo.php?codArquivo=1450
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