NMR-Based Metabolomic Screening for Metabolites Associated with Resistance to Meloidogyne javanica in Annona muricata Roots


J. Braz. Chem. Soc.




The resistance of Annona muricata roots to the nematode Meloidogyne javanica was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics in combination with principal component analysis (PCA). Metabolic changes in roots exposed and not exposed to the nematode were evaluated and compared. In addition, the presence of nematicidal compounds in the root extracts was investigated through in vitro assay against Meloidogyne javanica second-stage juveniles. Plants exposed to nematodes showed significant changes in their metabolism after 24 h. Several resistance-related metabolites, including dopamine, xanthine and aromatic compounds, could be identified in the roots with the joint analysis of 1D/2D NMR and the loadings of PC3 (17.8%). A.muricata root chloroform extract, containing mainly acetogenins, has shown nematostatic activity against M. javanica, suggesting that a pre-formed defense mechanism can support the reported resistance. For the first time, metabolomic studies allowed to identify induced and pre-formed defense mechanisms and their related metabolites in Annona muricata.

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