Mutagenesis and in vitro technology in the genetic improvement of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). / Mutagênese e tecnologia in vitro no melhoramento genético da pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum L.).




The purposes of the present work were to develop in vitro technology, associating it with mutagenesis, and to evaluate the V5 and V6 plants based on agronomical characters of production in Fusarium incidence areas, aiming at the genetic improvement of black pepper to obtain tolerant and/or resistant plants to the disease. The use of in vitro techniques started with the production of explant donor plants from greenhouse-grown cuttings and from seeds and in vitro zygotic embryos. The micropropagation process was developed using young shoots of in vitro plants by establishment of proper growing conditions in culture media for multiplication, rooting and production of plantlets, and by determining a suitable substrate type for acclimatization and growing of plantlets. After the process was defined, young shoots obtained from greenhouse grown plants underwent different aseptic treatments and the surviving plantlets were micropropagated. In vitro selection was carried out by cultivating pathogenic isolates of Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis in Czapek-Dox medium and, by using a growing curve, the most suitable growing period (28 days) for obtaining the fungus culture filtrate was defined. Different filtrate concentrations and sterilization techniques were tested in culture medium for young shoot multiplication. A concentration of 55% (v/v) of fungus filtrate under sterilization by double autoclavation was considered adequate to cause 100% mortality of fusariosis susceptible young shoots. Simultaneously, radiosensitivity tests were carried out through gamma irradiation of in vitro young shoots and dose of 20Gy was selected for mutation induction. Irradiated young shoots which underwent several multiplication cycles and survived the selective agent, fungus culture filtrate, are being cloned in order to be submitted to artificial selection with the fungus spores in greenhouse, to natural selection in a disease incidence area and to agronomical evaluation. These tests indicated that the concentration of 2x10 6 spores/ml in suspension and the application of the fungus on soil were appropriate for greenhouse selection. The V5 and V6 plants evaluated in field conditions for mortality and production characters showed similar performance to the original cultivar plants regarding average height (8.4 cm), weight (4.42g) and number of fruits (40 fruits) per spike, weight of 100 fruits (10.67g) and black pepper yield (>30%). However, better results were observed for average green pepper production (3,290g) and survival rates in a fusariosis incidence area. Analyses of principal components and canonic variables evidenced genetic divergence between plants grown from gamma-irradiated cuttings and the original cultivar ones.


in vitro propagation black pepper mutagênese disease resistance plant genetic improvement melhoramento genético vegetal mutagenesis in vitro cultivation cultivo "in vitro" pimenta-do-reino propagação "in vitro" resistência à doença

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