Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of ciprofloxacin in normal volunteers.
Gonzalez, M A
The multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline carboxylic acid derivative, were evaluated in normal volunteers. The drug was administered orally every 12 h during successive 7-day periods at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg. Samples of serum, urine, and saliva obtained after the first dose on days 1, 4, and 7 of each dosing period were assayed by microbiological methods. Peak concentrations of ciprofloxacin in serum were achieved generally from 1 to 1.5 h after administration. Mean peak serum levels were 1.35 to 1.42 micrograms/ml after the 250-mg dose, 2.60 to 2.89 micrograms/ml after the 500-mg dose, and 3.41 to 4.21 micrograms/ml after the 750-mg dose. Terminal serum half-lives ranged from 3.8 to 4.3, 4.5 to 4.9, and 3.9 to 6.6 h after the 250-, 500-, and 750-mg doses, respectively. Mean concentrations of ciprofloxacin in urine samples collected 0 to 2 h after dosing were 205 to 261, 255 to 518, and 243 to 846 micrograms/ml after the 250-, 500-, and 750-mg doses, respectively. Between 30 and 45% of the dose was recovered in urine 0 to 12 h after drug administration. Mean concentrations of ciprofloxacin in saliva at 2 h after dosing were 0.43, 1.23, and 1.45 micrograms/ml after the 250-, 500-, and 750-mg doses, respectively. These levels were 30 to 45% of the peak levels in serum and between 40 and 65% of the levels in serum measured 2 h after dosing. Ciprofloxacin was well tolerated.
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