Moscas dos generos Hippelates Loew, 1863 e Liohippelates Duda, 1929 (Diptera: Chloropidae) : levantamento, sazonalidade e parametros biologicos




Liohippelates peruanus (Becker) (Diptera: Chloropidae) is one of the most abundant species in the city of Campinas, São Paulo state and it has been described as mechanical vector of the bacteria Haemophilus aegyptius, the agent of conjunctivitis and of the Brazilian Purpuric Fever (Paganelli &Sabrosky 1993), it occurs in larger number in the hottest periods of the year, being an annoyance in parks, leisure and recreational areas, causing economical damage to tourism. During the period from 01/05/98 to 05/04/99, monthly collections were done in modified of Tinkhan &Dow traps, disposed in as a 3x3 Latin square, with the objective of collecting species of Chloropidae (Insecta:Diptera) with occurrence in the campus of the State University of Campinas distrito de Barão Geraldo (22.48.57º S.; 47.03.33º E.), being considered the seasonality, preference for type of baits and activity period during the day. Seven species were identified, three of than identified as morphospecies: Apallates sp, Conioscinella sp, Monochaetoscinella sp and a non identified species, which was designated as morphospecies 6. The collected and identified species were: Elachiptera sacculicornis, Hippelates coxipo, Hippelates. pseudodorsalis, Liohippelates flavipes, Liohippelates nigrifrons, Liohippelates peruanus and Liohippelates tibialis. The collections were done in the first 5 days of every month. The traps were mounted with 3 types of baits: eviscerated fish, eviscerated mouse and chicken viscera. The data were analysed by seasonal period: autumn /1998, winter /1998, spring /1998, summer 1998-1999 and the total number of frit fries collected by this method was of 6.488 males and 19.503 females, with an approximate sex ratio of 3:1 (female: male). the spring was the seasonal period that presented the largest numbers of collected individuals, with 7696 females and 2254 males, while in the autumn the number of collected individuals was the smallest: 3385 females and 1375 males. The difference in individuals collected during the spring was significant in comparison with other periods. The results show that most species are more active in the first hours of the morning (from 6:00 h up to 10:00 h) and in the evening (between 16:00 h and 18:00 h), and there was no significant among the first, next to the last and last collections done during the day. With the objective of studying the biology of this insect, an effective and simple way was developed for the breeding of immatures of this insect in the laboratory. The experiment was done in the laboratory, in constant temperatures of 22 oC, 24 oC, 27 oC and 29 oC and relative humidity of 80% ( + 5%). The data were analyzed by the statistical Program MINITAB 10.1 and they showed that the basal temperature (TB) for the development of the immatures, from egg to adult was of 16,97 ºC. Colonies of Liohippelates peruanus were kept at 27 ºC and humidity of 80% ( + 5%), in order to determine some parameters of the life table date, such as: reproductive rates (Ro = 1,95 days), generation time (T = 30,91 days), increment rate (rm = 0,02167) and natural increment finite rate (Rm = 1,022). It was determinated from the value of Rm and the generation time (31 days) that them was an increment of 589 individuals for a population of 600 individuals (300 M:300 F). The value of the survival of the population (Entropy) was H=0,604857, indicating that a pattern more than 0,5, in the which indicates one of deaths happens in an arithmetic progression, with a negative reason. The mortality rate (K) they indicate that the largest rates happened in the last 4 weeks: 82%, 38%, 86% and 100%, respectively 7th, 8 th, 9 th and 10 th. With the objective of verifying the individuals percentage that would die among a certain week and other a table of probability was built, where the individual percentage that can survive of a period the another was verified. Life expectation for each period, means to oviposition, larvae breeding, adult maintenance also are described. With the objective of verifying the height of flight activity of Chloropidae species, the modified trap of Thinkan was used, baited with eviscerated mouse, disposed in three heights, distributed in 3X3 latin square, three collections were taken in each day. The sampling of each station was done in the average period of each seasonal period, for ten days. The results showed that in the coldest periods (winter and autumn) there was greater number of individuals collected in next traps to the ground, while in the hotter seasonal periods (spring and summer), there was larger activity of these insects according with the heigh of the trap. These preliminary data can contribute in futures experiments that involve the study of this important family of Diptera, once that knowledge about the biology of Chloropidae in Brazil has been smallest


tabela de vida atividade de voo amostragem

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