Mechanical transmission of Bacillus anthracis by stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes taeniorhynchus).


We evaluated the potential of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans, and two species of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes taeniorhynchus, to transmit Bacillus anthracis Vollum 1B mechanically. After probing on Hartley guinea pigs with a bacteremia of ca. 10(8.6) CFU of B. anthracis per ml of blood, individual or pools of two to four stable flies or mosquitoes were allowed to continue feeding on either uninfected guinea pigs or A/J mice. All three insect species transmitted lethal anthrax infections to both guinea pigs and mice. Both stable flies and mosquitoes transmitted anthrax, even when they were held at room temperature for 4 h after exposure to the bacteremic guinea pig before being allowed to continue feeding on the susceptible animals. This study confirms that blood-feeding insects can mechanically transmit anthrax and supports recent anecdotal reports of fly-bite-associated cutaneous human anthrax. The potential for flies to mechanically transmit anthrax suggests that fly control should be considered as part of a program for control of epizootic anthrax.

Documentos Relacionados