Matrix Metalloproteinase 19 Regulates Insulin-like Growth Factor-mediated Proliferation, Migration, and Adhesion in Human Keratinocytes through Proteolysis of Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3
The American Society for Cell Biology
Unlike most other matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-19 is expressed in undifferentiated basal keratinocytes of healthy human skin. The human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, which like basal keratinocytes constitutively expresses MMP-19, down-regulated the expression of MMP-19 at high calcium concentrations. Calcium-regulation occurred through E-cadherin mediated cell-cell contacts because neutralizing anti-E-cadherin antibodies restored MMP-19 expression in high calcium. Overexpression of MMP-19 in HaCaT cells (HaCaT-WT) increased cellular proliferation, as well as migration and adhesion on type I collagen. This was due to proteolysis of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 by MMP-19, which augmented signaling through the IGF-I receptor, as evidenced by its increased autophosphorylation. Conversely, these effects were not observed in cells transfected with MMP-2 or a catalytically inactive MMP-19 mutant. As further proof that increased IGF-signaling promoted adhesion and migration in HaCaT-WT cells, we reproduced these effects by treating parental HaCaT with IGF-I. We observed dephosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase in HaCaT-WT as well as IGF-I–treated HaCaT cells, suggesting that inactivating focal adhesion kinase is a mechanism by which IGF-I enhances adhesion. Furthermore, IGF-I-triggered motility on type I collagen was mediated by MMP activity, which, however, was distinct from MMP-19. Considering the coexpression of IGFBP-3 and MMP-19 in the skin, we conclude that MMP-19 is a likely candidate to be the major IGFBP-3 degrading MMP in the quiescent epidermis. This activity might have widespread consequences for the behavior of epidermal keratinocytes.
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