Mapping greenhouse gases in the state of Bahia with the aim to reduce it wite energy efficiency initiatives and energy inputs substitution / Mapeamento das emissões de gases do efeito estufa no estado da Bahia com perspectiva de redução a partir de ações de eficiência energética e substituição de energéticos




The objective of this thesis is to analyze the consumption of energy among the segments of the economy of the State of Bahia and to create a matrix of greenhouse gases emissions in the state. Policies based on increasing the energy consumption efficiency and replacement of energy sources by less emitting ones could then be identified. The research is based on the State of Bahia Energy Balance for the period from 1980 to 2003. The analysis is focused on the 1985-2003 period. The goal is to study the impact of changes in the energy consumption profile and the implementation of energy efficiency measures that occurred in the period on the emission of greenhouse gases. The emission coefficients published by IPCC-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2000 review, were used for the emission calculations. These coefficients represent an average emission by each energy source in each economy sector. However, differences in economic profiles may cause discrepancies between the IPCC coefficients and the actual ones observed in the State of Bahia. The State of Bahia Energy Consumption Matrix is characterized by a significant share of non-renewable energy sources, particularly in the industrial sector. The motivation of this study is to show how the increase of non-renewable energy sources may be harmful to the environment, impacting economic activities and people well being. The energy consumption matrix was created to evaluate the contribution of each source in the matrix and to suggest future scenarios to reduce emissions by adopting conservation policies and/or substituting sources by less emitting ones. The analysis indicates that there was a reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Therefore, the analysis shifted to apply the Clean Development Mechanism to the observed reduction of equivalent carbon. The Energy Consumption Matrix contains the main greenhouse gases, such as CO2, CH4, and N2O as primary pollutants and CO as a secondary pollutant. All gases were computed based on the consumption of energy sources in each economic segment and the corresponding emission coefficient.


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