Manejo do mofo branco (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum L.) em tomateiro industrial / Management of white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorumL.) in tomato industry


IBICT - Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia




Brazil ranks ninth in the world production of tomato (Solanum esculentum L.), while much of this production is destined for processing industries. The added value obtained with the fruit processing endorses this species as the vegetable with the greatest economic importance in the Cerrado region of Brazil, where the State of Goiás stands out as the largest producer. Despite the favorable soil and climatic conditions, several factors have hindered its production, especially diseases caused by soilborne pathogens, which had increased their importance with the adoption of intensive production systems. Among them, white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) De Bary has caused serious problems in infested soils, under mild temperatures and high humidity. Concerning the large number of S. sclerotiorum hosts and the lack of resistant hybrids, chemical control has been chosen as the most common method for disease management, despite not always efficient, due to the difficulties to reach the pathogens resistance structures in the soil. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the disease escape on different tomato hybrids, to compare the effectiveness of synthetic fungicides mixed or not to potassium silicate; evaluate the biological control of white mold, with different commercial products based on Trichoderma spp. associated or not to a synthetic fungicide, and to evaluate the biological control with or without chemical fungicides, applied through chemigation. Tests were carried out in soil of medium texture at Unilever experimental farm, in Goiânia (GO), from 2008 to 2010. The experimental area was previously infested with sclerotia of the pathogen, obtained in pre-cleaning wastes of soybean. Drip irrigation was used in all tests, which had 4 plants m-1 with 1.5 meters between rows. The hybrids used in the disease escape tests were: U232, U2006 (Unilever), H9992, H7155 (Heinz), N877 (Nunhems) and H108 (Hypeel). In all other essays, Heinz 9780 was the chosen hybrid. All experiments were conducted under randomized blocks design with three replications, and had weekly assessments of disease incidence to estimate the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC). We also evaluated the productivity and its components, as well as acidity, soluble solids content and industrial yield. The results were submitted to ANOVA and to the Scott Knott or Tukey tests at 5%, using the statistical program Sisvar. It was shown that: Hybrids H9992 and Hp108 had lower AUDPCs, suggesting a partial escape to white mold and that hybrid choice can be added to the disease management cultural practices, despite there was no difference on their yield. In 2008, under higher disease pressure, potassium silicate in plots without fungicide application showed disease incidence, AUDPC, productivity and industrial yield equivalent to treatments with fluazinam and procymidone, and superior to results with benzalkonium chloride. There was no difference between treatments with Trichoderma spp. associated or not to fluazinam, in any of the assessed traits. Regarding industrial yield, there was an interaction between Trichoderma, fluazinam and years, with higher pulp yield under higher disease incidence and fluazinam sprayed alone. It was found that biological control with Trichoderma spp. via chemigation as a single measure or in mixture with the synthetic fungicides procymidone fluazinam reduced the AUDPC and increased the productivity of processing tomatoes in 25 tons on average, compared to the control. Therefore, this study showed new options for the integrated management of white mold in processing tomatoes.


agronomia sclerotinia sclerotiorum rendimento industrial área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença controle biológico silício sclerotinia sclerotiorum industrial yield area under disease progress curve biological control silicon

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