Lung metastases at the initial diagnosis of high-grade osteosarcoma: prevalence, risk factors and prognostic factors. A large population-based cohort study


Sao Paulo Med. J.




ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most prevalent malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Lung metastases are associated with poor prognosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim here was to explore the prevalence of and risk and prognostic factors for lung metastases in high-grade osteosarcoma patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database in the United States. METHODS: Data on 1,408 high-grade osteosarcoma patients registered in the SEER database between 2010 and 2015 were extracted. From these, all patients with high-grade osteosarcoma and initial lung metastasis were selected for analysis on risk and prognostic factors for lung metastases. Overall survival was estimated. RESULTS: There were 238 patients (16.90%) with lung metastases at diagnosis. Axial location, tumor size > 10 cm (odds ratio, OR 3.19; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.58-6.45), higher N stage (OR 4.84; 95% CI: 1.94-12.13) and presence of bone metastases (OR 8.73; 95% CI: 4.37-17.48) or brain metastases (OR 25.63; 95% CI: 1.55-422.86) were significantly associated with lung metastases. Younger age and surgical treatment (hazard ratio, HR 0.46; 95% CI: 0.30-0.71) favored survival. Median survival was prolonged through primary tumor surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The factors revealed here may guide lung metastasis screening and prophylactic treatment for osteosarcoma patients. A primary tumor in an axial location, greater primary tumor size, higher lymph node stage and presence of bone or brain metastases were significantly correlated with lung metastases. The elderly group (≥ 60 years) showed significant correlation with poor overall survival. For improved survival among high-grade osteosarcoma patients with lung metastases, aggressive surgery on the primary tumor site should be encouraged.

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