LEISHMANIOSE TEGUMENTAR AMERICANA: uma abordagem farmacológica




The leishmaniasis (ACL) is a zoonotic disease whose etiologic agent, species of the genus Leishmania. And a disease of the skin and mucous membranes, primarily zoonotic involving a variety of wild and domestic mammals. Outbreaks of leishmaniasis occur by environmental changes due to deforestation, construction of dams, roads, mines, plant work areas, military groups with the penetration of man into the wild where are the vectors and reservoirs. There is considerable degree of exposure related to human settlement or agricultural occupation of the outskirts of cities. In these cases, there is the clearance of mammalian hosts and vectors adapting to the new environment, generating impacts on human health. The forms of the disease are characterized as localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and diffuse anergic leishmaniasis. The diagnosis can be clinical, epidemiological and laboratory. Some preventive measures can be used as the vector control, the animal reservoirs and the treatment of patients. The measures in health education should be included in all services to develop control measures. They are used for the pharmacological treatment antimony compounds such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam ) and antimony N-methyl-(Glucantime ). There are medicines for the treatment of second line, such as amphotericin B (AB), Pentamidine, these are alternative drugs with significant side effects, and they are indicated only in cases of hypersensitivity phenomena to antimonials and / or high rates of secondary infection. Recurrence and resistance to treatment are factors that motivate the search for an ideal drug. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis is a challenge because the avaible drugs are highly toxic.


leishmaniose tegumentar americana epidemiologia farmacia terapêutica controle cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemiology control therapeutics

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