Implicit memory: acquisition and use / Aquisição e uso de memória implícita




The notion that memory may be dissociated in distinct systems is antique. The development of this assumption seems to be associated with studies involving amnesic patients, which contributed for the notion that specific cognitive functions are underlied for specific brain regions. Taking into account the historic context in which the models for explicit and implicit long-term memory developed, the aims of this study was to evaluate (1) to which extent there is acquisition of perceptual-motor implicit knowledge by way of imagery - seen here as a manner of handling information in working memory by control of attention, and (2) to which extent implicit knowledge acquired in a specific context may be used to solve problems in novel contexts, confronting established assumptions that this type of knowledge is strongly associated to the context of its acquisition. The Experiment 1 showed that there is acquisition of perceptual-motor implicit knowledge by way of imagination; the time-course for this acquisition is similar to that seen when acquisition occurs by actual task performance, suggesting that similar properties underlie both types of acquisition. The Experiment 2 showed that prior implicit knowledge acquisition related to reading rotated texts favors performance for reading texts with completely novel types of rotations, indicating the occurrence of transfer of training and, more importantly, that implicit knowledge was flexibly used for performance of a novel task. Taken together, these results show that handling information in working memory promotes “top-down” acquisition of perceptualmotor implicit knowledge and that this type of knowledge is not strictly associated to the specific context of its acquisition, being used for novel tasks. These results indicate the need for a review of the current assumptions about the interaction of memory systems and about the admitted properties of the implicit memory system.


mental simulation memory memória memória implícita learning implicit memory simulação mental história da neurociências neuroscience history aprendizado

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