Images of the baroque memory of Ouro Preto: the baroque space as educator of imaginary from Ouro Preto / Imagens da memória barroca de Ouro Preto: o espaço barroco como educador do imaginário ouro-pretano
Alexander de Freitas
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
The present research was, theoretically and methodologically, based on an interpretative and translator analysis of the meaning of verbal and non-verbal images and symbols (semanticsymbolic hermeneutics). The purpose of it was to investigate the influence and the coimplication of the iconographic and architectural images from Ouro Pretos baroques churches on the formation of a baroque imaginary, which is extended to the contemporaneity. The source of the iconographic research was the images and symbols found in the Matriz de Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Antônio Dias), in the Igreja da Ordem 3a de São Francisco de Assis, in the Matriz de Nossa Senhora do Pilar and in the Igreja de São Miguel e Almas, Sagrados Corações e Senhor Bom Jesus de Matozinhos de Ouro Preto. Among the sources for the research of the imaginary of the people from Ouro Preto, are highlighted: 1) ethnographic sources: testimonies of the residents of Ouro Preto; 2) literary sources: texts written by Drummond, Pedro Nava, Murilo Mendes and others; 3) visual sources: paintings by Alberto da Veiga Guignard, paintings done by José Joaquim de Oliveira and also by José Roberto Grão Mogol (workshop on art therapy at the Center for Psychosocial Care of Ouro Preto), besides photographs of the city taken by Edward Zvingila. By applying the semanticsymbolic hermeneutics to the collected baroque iconography it was verified that the message led to four different types of representations of fears of death: 1) images of death preceded by martyrdom and of redemptive role of the corporal mortification; 2) images of the fear of the Judgment and of condemnation; 3) macabre/vanitas images which exhort to the anguish before the transience of life; 4) images of a devouring animalism that symbolically express the faces of the devil, the anguish of death and the Judgment. As images and symbols which represent the imaginary of the native residents, the semantic-symbolic hermeneutics showed: 1) analogous images to the four types of representations of death which were abstracted from the baroque iconography; 2) the obsessive representation of a spatially besieged city, dominated and overwhelmed by the towers of the churches; 3) the memory of macabre/vanitas iconography and the memory of Purgatory as the structure for mythic narratives about ghosts and wandering souls, which are the most popular in the imaginary of the native residents of Ouro Preto. It can be concluded that the area of the baroque churches in Ouro Preto is a generator agent of culture which regiments, commands and governs the representations of images and symbols from the imaginary of the people of Ouro Preto, retaining and continually transmitting the inheritance from the baroque memory. Therefore, it is suggested an educational function of the internal/iconographic and external/ architectural spaces of the Ouro Pretos churches which, while preserving and revisiting the memory of the baroque culture, educates the imaginary of the people from Ouro Preto.