Hyponatremia, acute kidney injury, and mortality in HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis
Libório, Alexandre B., Silva Jr, Geraldo B., Silva, Carolina G.C.H., Lima Filho, Francisco J.C., Studart Neto, Adalberto, Okoba, Willy, Bruin, Veralice M.S. de, Araújo, Sônia M.H.A., Daher, Elizabeth F.
Braz J Infect Dis
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
BACKGROUND: There are no reports on hyponatremia and acute kidney injury (AKI) involved in the course of HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE). The main objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of hyponatremia and its relationship with AKI and mortality in HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study on patients with HIV-related TE. AKI was considered only when the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage) criterion was met, after the patient was admitted. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients were included, with a mean age of 36 ± 9 years. Hyponatremia at admission was observed in 43 patients (46.7%), with AKI developing in 25 (27.1%) patients during their hospitalization. Sulfadiazine was the treatment of choice in 81% of the cases. Death occurred in 13 cases (14.1%). Low serum sodium level correlated directly with AKI and mortality. Male gender (OR 7.89, 95% CI 1.22-50.90, p = 0.03) and hyponatremia at admission (OR 4.73, 95% CI 1.22-18.30, p = 0.02) were predictors for AKI. Independent risk factors for death were AKI (OR 8.3, 95% CI 1.4-48.2, p < 0.0001) and hyponatremia (or 9.9, 95% ci 1.2-96.3, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: AKI and hyponatremia are frequent in TE. Hyponatremia on admission is highly associated with AKI and mortality.
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